|Response to inhibition of smoothened in diverse epithelial cancer cells that lack smoothened or patched 1 mutations|
Authors: Fabrizio Galimberti, Alexander M. Busch, Fadzai Chinyengetere, Tian Ma, David Sekula, Vincent A. Memoli, Konstantin H. Dragnev, Fang Liu, Kevin C. Johnson, Yongli Guo, Sarah J. Freemantle, Angeline S. Andrew, Patricia Greninger, David J. Robbins, Jeff Settleman, Cyril Benes, Ethan Dmitrovsky
Affiliations: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA, Department of Pathology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA, Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA, Center for Molecular Therapeutics, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
Published online on: Wednesday, August 22, 2012
Hedgehog (HH) pathway Smoothened (Smo) inhibitors are active against Gorlin syndrome-associated basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma where Patched (Ptch) mutations occur. We interrogated 705 epithelial cancer cell lines for growth response to the Smo inhibitor cyclopamine and for expressed HH pathway-regulated species in a linked genetic database. Ptch and Smo mutations that respectively conferred Smo inhibitor response or resistance were undetected. Previous studies revealed HH pathway activation in lung cancers. Therefore, findings were validated using lung cancer cell lines, transgenic and transplantable murine lung cancer models, and human normal-malignant lung tissue arrays in addition to testing other Smo inhibitors. Cyclopamine sensitivity most significantly correlated with high cyclin E (P=0.000009) and low insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) (P=0.000004) levels. Gli family members were associated with response. Cyclopamine resistance occurred with high GILZ (P=0.002) expression. Newer Smo inhibitors exhibited a pattern of sensitivity similar to cyclopamine. Gain of cyclin E or loss of IGFBP6 in lung cancer cells significantly increased Smo inhibitor response. Cyclin E-driven transgenic lung cancers expressed a gene profile implicating HH pathway activation. Cyclopamine treatment significantly reduced proliferation of murine and human lung cancers. Smo inhibition reduced lung cancer formation in a syngeneic mouse model. In human normal-malignant lung tissue arrays cyclin E, IGFBP6, Gli1 and GILZ were each differentially expressed. Together, these findings indicate that Smo inhibitors should be considered in cancers beyond those with activating HH pathway mutations. This includes tumors that express genes indicating basal HH pathway activation.