Inhibitory effect of burdock leaves on elastase and tyrosinase activity
- Chi‑Ting Horng
- Hsing‑Chen Wu
- Ni‑Na Chiang
- Chiu‑Fang Lee
- Yu‑Syuan Huang
- Hui‑Yun Wang
- Jai‑Sing Yang
- Fu‑An Chen
Affiliations: Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 80284, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Nutrition, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 80284, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Pingtung 91245, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Pharmacy and Master Program, Tajen University, Pingtung 90741, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 40447, Taiwan, R.O.C.
- Published online on: August 3, 2017 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2017.4880
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Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaves generate a considerable amount of waste following burdock root harvest in Taiwan. To increase the use of burdock leaves, the present study investigated the optimal methods for producing burdock leaf extract (BLE) with high antioxidant polyphenolic content, including drying methods and solvent extraction concentration. In addition, the elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of BLE was examined. Burdock leaves were dried by four methods: Shadow drying, oven drying, sun drying and freeze‑drying. The extract solution was then subjected to total polyphenol content analysis and the method that produced BLE with the highest amount of total antioxidant components was taken forward for further analysis. The 1,1‑diphenyl‑2‑pycrylhydrazyl scavenging, antielastase and antityrosinase activity of the BLE were measured to enable the evaluation of the antioxidant and skin aging‑associated enzyme inhibitory activities of BLE. The results indicated that the total polyphenolic content following extraction with ethanol (EtOH) was highest using the freeze‑drying method, followed by the oven drying, shadow drying and sun drying methods. BLE yielded a higher polyphenol content and stronger antioxidant activity as the ratio of the aqueous content of the extraction solvent used increased. BLE possesses marked tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities, with its antielastase activity notably stronger compared with its antityrosinase activity. These results indicate that the concentration of the extraction solvent was associated with the antioxidant and skin aging‑associated enzyme inhibitory activity of BLE. The reactive oxygen species scavenging theory of skin aging may explain the tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of BLE. In conclusion, the optimal method for obtaining BLE with a high antioxidant polyphenolic content was freeze‑drying followed by 30‑50% EtOH extraction. In addition, the antielastase and antityrosinase activities of the BLE produced may be aid in the development of skincare products with antiwrinkle and skin-evening properties.