Open Access

Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

  • Authors:
    • Zhengming Wang
    • Zhijia Wang
    • Kai Li
    • Xu Su
    • Chao Du
    • Yu Tian
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 30, 2021
  • Article Number: 17
  • Copyright: © Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Although microvascular decompression (MVD) should be considered as the first‑line treatment for classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) owing to neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve, an increasing number of surgeons prefer radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT). RFT is a Gasserian ganglion‑level ablative intervention that may achieve immediate pain relief for TN. It is used for emergency management when MVD is not suitable for the patient. As the gold surgical standard of classic trigeminal neuralgia, MVD has the advantage of longer efficacy. However, there are currently no high‑quality controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of MVD and RFT. For the present systematic review, the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases (all entries up until July 31, 2020) were searched to identify studies related to RFT in order to provide valuable information for clinical decision‑making. The efficacy of the RFT method was evaluated in terms of the initial pain relief percentage, recurrence rate and follow‑up time. Furthermore, the incidence rate of various postoperative complications was retrieved. RFT was used for a wider range of applications than MVD, including use for primary (owing to neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve), idiopathic and secondary (due to primary neurological diseases) TN, and provided a high rate of initial pain relief and long‑term pain control. Although this method has several side effects, the incidence of complications could be reduced by precise cannulation. Furthermore, the complications that occurred were not permanent. Thus, RFT is a safe and effective minimally invasive method of pain relief for patients with TN.


Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as severe, episodic pain distributed along one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (1,2). Surgical intervention is performed if pharmacotherapy is unsuccessful, either due to intolerable side effects or poor pain control. Although pharmacotherapy is frequently the preferred treatment option, several patients prefer surgery as a first-line treatment due to its long-lasting effect (3).

Radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) was initially developed by Réthi (4) in 1913, although it was not until 1975 that Sweet (5) demonstrated that it is able to provide effective pain relief. MVD is the first choice of surgical treatment in patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia, while RFT (ablation treatment) should be the preferred choice when an MRI does not show any vascular contact. RFT is also used as an alternative option when a patient is thought unable to tolerate MVD (6). In clinical practice, compared with the invasive technique of MVD, RFT is minimally invasive. RFT has advantages and limitations in terms of its efficacy and complications. Although its side effects may not be permanent, they cannot be entirely excluded. Repeated puncture may cause unnecessary damage, although precise cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications. Inaccurate positioning is the major reason for puncture failure and is considered a significant cause of pain recurrence and complications (7-12). Various techniques and applications, such as CT navigation through use of a 3D template or frameless stereotactic navigation, have been proposed for addressing these issues (13).

As the gold surgical standard treatment of classic trigeminal neuralgia, MVD has the advantage of longer efficacy. However, there are currently no high-quality controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of MVD and RFT. Therefore, this article evaluates the efficacy and complications of RFT to provide a basis for clinicians to make informed choices.

Materials and methods

Search strategy

Previous publications written in English were searched using the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases. The search included studies that were published up to July 31, 2020. Publications were queried using the following key words, including synonyms and all of their possible combinations: ‘Trigeminal neuralgia’, ‘Tic douloureux’, ‘trifacial neuralgia’, ‘radiofrequency thermocoagulation’, ‘radiofrequency therapy’, ‘percutaneous radiofrequency ablation’, ‘radiosurgery’, ‘radiofrequency ablation’, ‘radiofrequency thermal coagulation’, ‘radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy’, ‘thermocoagulation radiofrequency’, ‘radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy’, ‘percutaneous infrazygomatic radiofrequency neurolysis’ and ‘radiofrequency rhizotomy’. The search was limited to research articles involving human subjects. The reference lists of relevant articles were also retrieved and screened during the search. The present review was conducted following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention (14), with the exception of protocol registration.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

All types of studies performed on patients with classical TN undergoing RFT with or without a control group were included. Studies published in a language other than English and conference abstracts were excluded.

Study selection

In total, two authors (ZMW, ZJW) independently assessed titles and abstracts retrieved via database searches, as well as full texts of potentially relevant studies. Any discrepancies between authors were resolved by involvement of the third author (KL).

Data extraction process

In total, two authors (ZMW, ZJW) independently extracted the following information from each study: Name of the first author, year of publication, study design, comparator, inclusion and exclusion criteria, number of participants, follow-up period, complication rate, initial pain relief rate, recurrence rate and mean time to pain recurrence. Discrepancies were resolved by the third author (SX).

Risk of bias and methodological assessment

In total, two authors with formal training (ZMW, ZJW) performed the assessment of the medical literature according to the principles of evidence-based medicine to determine the risk of bias. The risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool (15) and the risk of bias of non-RCTs was performed using the non-randomized studies of interventions-I tool (16). Discrepancies were resolved by the third author (KL). Due to considerable heterogeneity in the interventions amongst the included studies, along with the difference in the study types, no meta-analysis was performed and the results of the current study are presented in a descriptive fashion.


Study selection

A flow chart depicting the study retrieval and selection process is presented in Fig. 1. Of the relevant studies identified, 54 studies were included (Tables I and II) in the present review, and 2862 studies were excluded. A total of 13,410 patients were included.

Table I

Efficacy of radiofrequency thermocoagulation in previous studies.

Table I

Efficacy of radiofrequency thermocoagulation in previous studies.

 Recurrence rate (%) 
First Author (year)NInitial pain relief rate (%)6 months1 year2 years3 years5 yearsTotalMean time to pain recurrenceFollow-up duration(Refs.)
Xue (2019)4090 17.5     1 year(17)
Huang (2019)12100 8.3     13±7.87 months(18)
Guo (2018)4100     0 26 months(19)
Liu (2018)4197.62.49.817.1    2 years(20)
Telischak (2018)6100 16.7     1 year(21)
Elawamy (2017)11 (PRF) 1890.9100    2 years(59)
 12 (CRF) 252550    2 years 
 20 (CCPRF) 51530    2 years 
Yao (2016)62 (68˚C)100 6.5 21.925.6  5 years(60)
 62 (75˚C)100 4.9 15.719.3  5 years 
Yao (2016)28 (CRF)100 18.431.631.6   3 years(61)
 28 (CCPRF)100 8816.4   3 years 
Yao (2016)446 (62˚C)94.2 16.2 23.34159.4 9 years(62)
 438 (65˚C)98.3 9.9 19.535.746.3 9 years 
 470 (68˚C)98.8 8.6 11.822.839.7 9 years 
Noorani (2016)15579 38.2     19 years(22)
Huang (2016)8098.75       3 months(23)
Kosugi (2015)37 (V2)100 59.580.4   9 months3-48 months(24)
 38 (V3)100 19.845.1   36 months3-48 months 
 67 (V2+V3)86.6 50.782.9   12 months3-48 months 
Jin (2015)90 16.7      6 months(25)
Tang (2014)304100 15 252951 10 years(26)
Singh (2014)1877.82036.4   67.7 18 months(63)
Huang (2014)12100010     1 year(64)
Koning (2014)2889 4050    32 months(27)
Udupi (2012)3994.8  28.7±18.7 months3-60 months(65)
Son (2011)38100  20.229.1 28.926.1±11.5 months38.2 months(28)
Fouad (2011)312100 13.5     3 years(29)
Degn (2010)10 (type 1 TN)  29 29   3 years(30)
 33 (type 2 TN)  67 100  8 months3 years 
Huang (2010)30 (CTN)86.7 23.326.726.7  28 months3 years(31)
 27 (MTN)48.1 53.458.658.6  15.7 months3 years 
Huibin (2009)20 (CRF)90   2535  3 years(66)
 30 (PRF)87   2740  3 years 
Haridas (2008)14595.96.58.627.439.334.136.7 5 years(32)
Fraioli (2009)15898.7     7.6 8.8 years(33)
Liu (2005)1894.411.1    16.7 31.5 months(34)
Teixeira (2006)273100 4.5   10.2 22.6 months(35)
Xu (2006)26 (Navigation)100 1525    36±7 months(12)
 28 (Without navigation)95 4660    34±5 months 
Kanpolat (2001)1,216  1038384144 60 months(36)
Tronnier (2001)206   50 75  14 years(37)
Zakrzewska (1999)31 (TN) 6103636  40 months30±12 months(67)
 17 (MTN) 13203646  36 months30±12 months 
Scrivani (1999)21592     27 6-68 months(68)
Lee (1997)23592.3     25 7.2 years(38)
Oturai (1996)185 263037424449 96 months(39)
Taha (1995)15499.4    1525 14years(40)
Tan (1995)8087.5 25      (41)
Broggi (1993)71295     18 14 years(42)
Hamid (1993)12786     - 1-10 years(43)
Zakrzewska (1993)265      2224 months45 months(44)
Moraci (1992)56896     16 1-10 years(45)
Meglio (1990)3381.8  42.4    2 years(46)
Broggi (1990)1,00094.8   12.8 18.1 9.3 years(47)
Fraioli (1989)53397.4     9.2 6.5 years(48)
Frank (1989)912    25   3 years(49)
Mittal (1986)28090.7612      (50)
Latchaw (1983)96 122335394047 60 months(51)

[i] TN, trigeminal neuralgia; CRF, continuous radiofrequency; PRF, pulsed radiofrequency; CCPRF, combined CRF with PRF; CTN, classical trigeminal neuralgia; MTN, mixed trigeminal neuralgia; V2, maxillary division of TN; V3, mandibular division of TN.

Table II

Complications of radiofrequency thermocoagulation.

Table II

Complications of radiofrequency thermocoagulation.

First Author (year)N (subgroup)Moderate facial hypoesthesia (%)Bothersome dysesthetic (%)Anesthesia dolorosa (%)Masticatory weakness (%)Facial swelling (%)Corneal involvement (%)6th nerve palsy (%)Otalgia or hypoacousia (%)Cerebrospinal fluid leakage (%)Carotid artery puncture (%)Meningitis (%)Nausea/ vomiting (%)(Refs.)
Xue (2019)40100  77.537.555      (17)
Huang (2019)12 16.7 2516.67       (18)
Guo (2018)425           (19)
Liu (2018)41100  9.8       12.2(20)
Telischak (2018)680  4000      (21)
Elawamy (2017)11 (PRF) 0  8.3      0(59)
 12 (CRF) 0 18.2       9.1 
 20 (CCPRF) 10 5       5 
Yao (2016)62 (68˚C)12.9  4.817.71.6      (60)
 62 (75˚C)79  25.82119.4       
Yao (2016)28 (CRF)10.7   21.442.9  32.1  7.1(61)
 28 (CCPRF)7.1   17.910.7  28.6  10.7 
Yao (2016)446 (62˚C) 1.79 0 0 0.45   10.1(62)
 438 (65˚C) 9.81 0.68 2.97 0.23   12.1 
 470 (68˚C) 21.7 2.55 5.74 0.21   10.2 
Noorani (2016)15589.34.5          (22)
Huang (2016)8097.5    18.75      (23)
Tang (2016)1,16195  8.4   (52)
Singh (2014)1833.3  61.1 72.2     11.1(63)
Koning (2014)2856  12 20    3.6 (27)
Huang (2014)12100  41.716.78.3      (64)
Tang (2014)3041008.6 8.8    (26)
Udupi (2012)3979.57.7   12.8      (65)
Degn (2010)1089           (30)
Son (2011)3818.42.6 15.8 00     (28)
Fouad (2011)31210036 1.6 1    0.3 (29)
Huang (2010)2083.326.76.75026.7       (31)
Fraioli (2009)158 3.8 3.85.7       (33)
Huibin (2009)20 (CRF)25  10 10      (66)
 30 (PRF)20  0 0       
Erdine (2007)20 (CRF)10005     25   (69)
 20 (PRF)10000     15    
Liu (2005)1872.2  5.6 5.6      (34)
Xu (2006)26 (Navigation) 0 0 0  0   (12)
 28 (Without navigation) 7.14 3.6 10.7  3.6    
Teixeira (2006)27330.4   0.4 1.5     (35)
Tronnier (2001)206 0.90         (37)
Kanpolat (2001)1,600 10.84.1 6.3 0.880.13 0.06 (36)
Mathews (2000)258 8.11.928.7 3.9    0.78 (53)
Scrivani (1999)215 8.41.828.803.20   0.9 (68)
Yoon (1999)81 9.9 4.9 17.3      (54)
Tew (1995)1,200 3123 8    0.2 (55)
Taha (1995)154928 14.3 18.8      (40)
Tan (1995)8087.525   15      (41)
Broggi (1993)712 6.7 10.5 19.7      (42)
Hamid (1993)127   0.793.143.14 8.66 0.79  (43)
Moraci (1992)568800.3 13.3 0.9      (45)
Ischia (1990)124 6.53.2  22.6    0.8 (56)
Meglio (1990)3324.4           (46)
Broggi (1990)1,000 5.21.510.5 20.30.5     (47)
Fraioli (1989)533 15.21.53 22.1      (48)
Frank (1989)700  0.68 10.14     (49)
Mittal (1986)229 2.4      (50)
Latchaw (1983)96 12.515.2 15.6      (51)
Burchiel (1981)69  4.3  2.9      (57)

[i] TN, trigeminal neuralgia; CRF, continuous radiofrequency; PRF, pulsed radiofrequency; CCPRF, combined CRF with PRF.

The studies had various designs, including 41 historical cohort studies (17-57) and 13 prospective cohort studies (58-69). Of the 13 prospective cohort studies, six were RCTs (59-62,12,69) and only one RCT (12) did not describe the method used to generate the allocation sequence in sufficient detail. Despite this, the study was included in the present analysis.

Risk of bias of included studies

The risk of bias summary of the RCTs is presented in Fig. 2 and the risk of bias summary of the non-RCTs is presented in Fig. 3. From all randomized studies, in the first domain, random sequence generation, five studies had a low risk for a particular randomization method. For the allocation concealment domain, all studies had a high risk of bias, because the surgeon knew the personal information of patients. Due to the nature of the intervention, surgical observation studies were difficult to achieve double blinding or triple blinding. Objective evaluation indicators were used so to have minimum effect on the results. Risk of bias for the domain ‘blinding of participants and personnel’, ‘blinding of outcome assessment’ and ‘In complete outcome data’ was defined as low in all studies. In the ‘selective reporting’ domain, one study was judged to have a high risk of bias and three to have a low risk of bias. In the last domain, other bias, none of the trials was pre-registered, three studies had a low risk of bias due to consistency of methods and results.

Results on efficacy and complications

The percentages of patients experiencing initial pain relief after RFT ranged from 77.8 to 100% (17-24,26-29,31-35,38,40-43,45-48,50,58,60-66,68), with a mean time to pain recurrence of 8-40 months (24,28,30,31,44,65,67). The recurrence rate following RFT ranged from 0 to 26% (20,25,32,34,39,50,51,59,63,64,67) at 6 months, from 4.5 to 67% (17,18,20-22,24-27,29-32,35,36,39,50,51,59-65,12,67) at 1 year, from 8 to 82.9% (20,24,27,28,31,32,36,37,39,46,51,59-61,65,12,67) at 2 years, from 11.8 to 58.6% (26,28,30-32,36,39,47,49,51,60-62,65,66,67) at 3 years and from 15 to 75% (26,32,36,37,39,40,51,60,62,66,67) at 5 years (Table I). All statistical results are continuous radiofrequency (CRF). Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and combined CRF with PRF (CCPRF) are not included. There were two studies that (26,63) separately counted the results of mixed TN (MTN). Since other studies did not discuss MTN separately, the results of MTN were not included in the statistics. Only one study (25) discusses type 2 TN (a constant burning, dull background pain), these results were also excluded. The results for MTN and type 2 can be viewed in Table I.

Regarding complications, moderate facial hypoesthesia occurred in 7.1-100% of patients who underwent RFT (Table II) (17,19-23,26-31,34,35,40,41,45,46,52,58,60,61,63-66,69), whereas bothersome dysesthesia occurred in 0-36% of patients (12,18,22,26,28,29,31,33,36,37,40-42,45,47,48,50,51,53-56,59,62,65,68,69) and anesthesia dolorosa was present in 0-9.6% of patients (31,36,37,47-51,53,55-57,68,69). The percentage ranges of patients identified for the other complications examined were as follows: Masticatory weakness in 0-77.5% (12,17,18,20,21,26-29,31,33,34,36,40,42,43,45,47-55,59,60,62-64,66,68), facial swelling in 0-37.5% (17,18,21,31,33,35,43,59-61,64,68), corneal involvement in 0-72.2% (17,18,21,23,26-29,31,34,36,40-43,45,47-57,60-66,68), sixth nerve palsy in 0-1.7% (26,28,35,47,49,52,68), otalgia or hypoacousia in 0.21-8.66% (26,36,43,52,62), meningitis in 0.06-3.6% (27,29,36,53,55,56,68), nausea or vomiting in 0-12.2% (20,59,61-63), cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 0-32.1% (36,52,61,12,69) and carotid artery puncture in 0.79% of patients (43).


The mean initial pain relief provided by RFT was 95.31%, whereas the range was 77.8-100%. Although the lowest reported initial pain relief rate was 77.8%, 92.4% of the studies had an initial pain relief rate of >90%. A longer follow-up period was associated with a higher number of relapses. Recurrence following RFT was found in 69.57% of the reported studies and the peak range was 1-2 years (17,18,20-22,24-32,34-37,39,41,46,50,51,59-65,12,67). The median value of the mean time to pain recurrence was 26.1±11.5 months (28).

Among the studies assessed, moderate facial hypoesthesia was the most common complication of RFT, although sensory impairment may be necessary for optimal clinical results (70). Bothersome dysesthesia is also common with RFT but it has rarely been mentioned in the past decade (17,19-21,23,27,52,59-61,63,64). Anesthesia dolorosa is common following RFT (31,36,53,56,12), although this complication has rarely been mentioned in the past decade. Complications of corneal involvement are common in RFT and their incidence was particularly high when RFT was used to treat the ophthalmic division (V1) of TN (23,61). During RFT treatment, precise location of the needle tip selectively damages the unmyelinated fine fibers in the lesion area, thereby reducing the occurrence of complications and relapses (7-12). This result is consistent with those of a previous study by our group (19). The only complication of the treatment, which combines the stereotactic approach with 3D CT reconstruction and RFT of the Gasserian ganglion (19), was moderate facial hypoesthesia. Facial swelling occurs mostly due to soft-tissue damage caused by repeated punctures or damage to blood vessels during puncture. Its risk is reduced by accurate puncture. Although masticatory weakness was mentioned as a complication of RFT, it is more frequent and severe following percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) (71-76).

Several factors exist that influence ablative interventions. Koning et al (27) investigated sensory stimulation and the side effects of RFT for TN. They concluded that low sensory stimulation increased hypesthesia and that high stimulation may be less effective. However, this study did not determine the optimal sensory stimulation level.

Continuous radiofrequency (CRF), pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and combined CRF with PRF (CCPRF) are three radiofrequency treatments used for TN. Although CRF has more complications than PRF, the majority of them are minor and transient. Compared with PRF, CRF exhibits a higher satisfaction rate and lower recurrence rate (64). Therefore, PRF is not considered an effective method for TN (69). CCPRF aided the elimination of postoperative complications (77) and achieved a level of pain relief comparable to that afforded by CRF (78). Yao et al (61) recommended the clinical use of CCPRF for treating V1 TN.

The radiofrequency temperature is another factor that affects the outcomes of RFT, although no current standard exists for the selection of the CRF temperature required for TN treatment. Yao et al (60,62) reported that 68˚C was the optimal radiofrequency temperature for treating the maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) division of idiopathic TN (62) and bilateral idiopathic TN (60). Zhao et al (77) suggested that 70˚C was the optimal temperature for RFT. Tang et al (52) recommended a temperature of 75˚C for idiopathic TN. Wu et al (79) reported that patient satisfaction was improved when the temperature range was 68-70˚C, whereas the efficiency was improved at a temperature range of 66-80˚C. In other studies, the temperature range of 60-65˚C for V1 and the temperatures of 72˚C and 75˚C for V2 and V2/V3 TN, respectively, were used and the results indicated excellent patient satisfaction (19,80). For PRF, a temperature range of 45-50˚C has been recommended, particularly for elderly patients (77,79).

In a non-RCT by Huang et al (18) V3 TN was treated under CT guidance with both bipolar and monopolar techniques. This study indicated that bipolar RFT exhibited a more favorable efficacy and recurrence rate than monopolar RFT, which was likely due to larger lesion sizes in the bipolar RFT group (18). However, due to the small sample size, higher-quality evidence from larger-scale, well-designed, RCTs is required.

Huang et al (31) compared the efficacy of classic and mixed TN. It was indicated that 48.1% of patients with mixed TN reported improvements following RFT compared with 86.7% of patients with classic TN. Similarly, Kosugi et al (24) compared the long-term efficacy of isolated V2 TN, isolated V3 TN and mixed TN. The data demonstrated that the pain relief time of isolated V3 TN was longer than that of V2 and mixed TN. RFT was effective for classic TN and was relatively reliable for mixed TN. RFT had a positive outcome when used to manage provoked paroxysmal pain TN or mixed pain (provoked and constant pain) TN compared with constant, dull, aching pain TN (25). Degn and Brennum (30) reported that RFT was an effective intervention for type 1 TN (brief lancinating pain) but not for type 2 TN (continuous pain).

Liu et al (20) compared the efficacy and complications between RFT treatment of initial TN and recurrent TN. They indicated that the efficacy and the complication rate of repeated TN treated by RFT was similar to that of the initial TN.

Filippiadis et al (58) described an alternative approach for RFT, which included the entry point from the lateral side near the zygomatic bone. This approach used to be performed under local anesthesia (81-85) and this was the first time that it was applied to RFT. Furthermore, Ding et al (86) described a submandibular approach through a mandibular angle to reach the foramen ovale. These studies suggested the use of an alternative approach instead of the Härtel anterior approach that may reduce the complication rate, obtain long-term pain control of TN and achieve higher target selectivity for RFT.

In conclusion, in the present systematic review, the role of RFT in pain management provided to patients with TN was analyzed. RFT offered a high initial pain relief rate and a long pain-free interval after treatment. The recurrence rate was acceptable and the recurrence peak was 1-2 years. RFT may be repeated easily if pain recurs and has a longer learning curve for junior surgeons compared with that of PBC.

There are no sham-controlled or comparative trials on any neurosurgical intervention, which is a limitation of the present study. However, the incidence of complications was low and the majority of the complications were able to be recovered. Owing to the considerable heterogeneity and risk of bias in the included studies, strong conclusions could not be drawn. Additional high-quality RCTs assessing the role of RFT in TN management are required to strengthen the current evidence. The reduction of the difficulty of RFT puncture and of the recurrence and complication rates following RFT treatment are the main issues that need to be addressed in future studies.


Not applicable.


This work was supported by grants from the Science and Technology Department of Jilin Province, China (grant nos. 20110472 and 20150204072SF).

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary files.

Authors' contributions

ZMW, ZJW, KL and XS acquired, analyzed and interpreted the data. ZJW and KL confirm the authenticity of all the raw data. ZMW drafted the manuscript. CD and YT conceived and designed the current study, and revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. Each author participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Patient consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.



International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP): Classification of chronic pain. Descriptors of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. 2nd edition. IASP Press, Washington, DC, 1994.


Zakrzewska JM and McMillan R: Trigeminal neuralgia: The diagnosis and management of this excruciating and poorly understood facial pain. Postgrad Med J. 87:410–416. 2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Zakrzewska JM, Lopez BC, Kim SE and Coakham HB: Patient reports of satisfaction after microvascular decompression and partial sensory rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 56:1304–1311. 2005.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Réthi A: The Electrolytic Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. Munch Med Wochenschr. 60:295–296. 1913.(In German).


Sweet WG: Proceedings: Analgesia dolorosa after differential retrogasserian thermal or mechanical rhizotomy: Tactics employed to decrease its influence. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 38(407)1975.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Bendtsen L, Zakrzewska JM, Heinskou TB, Hodaie M, Leal PR, Nurmikko T, Obermann M, Cruccu G and Maarbjerg S: Advances in diagnosis, classification, pathophysiology, and management of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancet Neurol. 19:784–796. 2020.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Zhang WC, Zhong WX, Li ST, Zheng XS, Yang M and Shi J: Neuronavigator-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Ir J Med Sci. 181:7–13. 2012.PubMed/NCBI


Zhao S, Deng M, Cai H, Meng Q, Fang W, Ke J and Long X: Clinical efficacy evaluation for treating trigeminal neuralgia using a personalized digital guide plate-assisted temperature-controlled radiofrequency. J Craniofac Surg. 29:1322–1326. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Zhang LG, Deng MH, Long X and Wang ZZ: 3D printing navigation template-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for V2 trigeminal neuralgia treatment. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 36:662–666. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar : (In Chinese).


Lu LJ, Han Y, Huai HB and Xie H: 3D printing puncture navigation module-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Chin J Pain Med. 12:914–918. 2015.(In Chinese).


Hinteregger M, Zschiegner F, Lirk P, Ladner E, Goeschl A, Gaber O, Moser P, Lorenz I and Kolbitsch C: A new guidance device facilitates percutaneous puncture of the foramen ovale in human cadavers. Can J Anaesth. 51:990–992. 2004.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Xu SJ, Zhang WH, Chen T, Wu CY and Zhou MD: Neuronavigator-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation in the treatment of intractable trigeminal neuralgia. Chin Med J (Engl)S. 119:1528–1535. 2006.PubMed/NCBI


Mandat T, Brozyna B, Krzymanski G and Podgorski JK: An image-guided, noninvasive method of cannulation of the foramen ovale for awake, percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy. J Neurosurg. 111:1223–1225. 2009.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J and Moher D: The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: Explanation and elaboration. BMJ. 339(b2700)2009.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Jüni P, Moher D, Oxman AD, Savovic J, Schulz KF, Weeks L, Sterne JA, et al: The cochrane collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 343(d5928)2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Sterne JA, Hernán MA, Reeves BC, Savović J, Berkman ND, Viswanathan M, Henry D, Altman DG, Ansari MT, Boutron I, et al: ROBINS-I: A tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. BMJ. 355(i4919)2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Xue TQ, Zhang QX, Bian H, Zhou PC, Liu C, Niu SF, Wang ZB, Shi WJ and Yan CY: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation through foramen rotundum versus foramen ovale for the treatment of V2 trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Physician. 22:E609–E614. 2019.PubMed/NCBI


Huang B, Xie K, Chen Y, Wu J and Yao M: Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of mandibular branch for refractory V3 trigeminal neuralgia. J Pain Res. 12:1465–1474. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Guo Z, Wang Z, Li K, Du C, Zhao X, Cheng M and Tian Y: Unconventional facial entry points confirmed using a 3D CT reconstruction-guided stereotactic approach to radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: A series of case reports. Pain Med. 20:1551–1558. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Liu G, Du Y, Wang X and Ren Y: Efficacy and safety of repeated percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. Front Neurol. 9(1189)2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Telischak NA, Heit JJ, Campos LW, Choudhri OA, Do HM and Qian X: Fluoroscopic C-Arm and CT-guided selective radiofrequency ablation for trigeminal and glossopharyngeal Facial pain syndromes. Pain Med. 19:130–141. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Noorani I, Lodge A, Vajramani G and Sparrow O: Comparing percutaneous treatments of trigeminal neuralgia: 19 years of experience in a single centre. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 94:75–85. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Huang Q, Liu X, Chen J, Bao C, Liu D, Fang Z, Liang X, Lu Z and Wan L: The effectiveness and safety of thermocoagulation radiofrequency treatment of the ophthalmic division (V1) and/or maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) division in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: An observational study. Pain Physician. 19:E1041–E1047. 2016.PubMed/NCBI


Kosugi S, Shiotani M, Otsuka Y, Suzuki T, Katori N, Hashiguchi S and Morisaki H: Long-term outcomes of percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of gasserian ganglion for 2nd- and multiple-division trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Pract. 15:223–228. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Jin HS, Shin JY, Kim YC, Lee SC, Choi EJ, Lee PB and Moon JY: Predictive factors associated with success and failure for radiofrequency thermocoagulation in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Physician. 18:537–545. 2015.PubMed/NCBI


Tang YZ, Jin D, Bian JJ, Li XY, Lai GH and Ni JX: Long-term outcome of computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for classic trigeminal neuralgia patients older than 70 years. J Craniofac Surg. 25:1292–1295. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Koning MV, Koning NJ, Koning HM and van Kleef M: Relationship between sensory stimulation and side effects in percutaneous radiofrequency treatment of the trigeminal ganglion. Pain Pract. 14:581–587. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Son BC, Kim HS, Kim IS, Yang SH and Lee SW: Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation under fluoroscopic image-guidance for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 50:446–452. 2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Fouad W: Management of trigeminal neuralgia by radiofrequency thermocoagulation. Alexandria J Med. 47:79–86. 2011.


Degn J and Brennum J: Surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Results from the use of glycerol injection, microvascular decompression, and rhizotomia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 152:2125–2132. 2010.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Huang Y, Ni J, Wu B, He M, Yang L and Wang Q: Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of different types of trigeminal neuralgia: Evaluation of quality of life and outcomes. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 30:403–407. 2010.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Haridas A, Mathewson C and Eljamel S: Long-term results of 405 refractory trigeminal neuralgia surgeries in 256 patients. Zentralbl Neurochir. 69:170–174. 2008.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Fraioli MF, Cristino B, Moschettoni L, Cacciotti G and Fraioli C: Validity of percutaneous controlled radiofrequency thermocoagulation in the treatment of isolated third division trigeminal neuralgia. Surg Neurol. 71:180–183. 2009.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Liu M, Wu CY, Liu YG, Wang HW and Meng FG: Three-dimensional computed tomography-guided radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy for treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Chin Med Sci J. 20:206–209. 2005.PubMed/NCBI


Teixeira MJ, Siqueira SRDT and Almeida GM: Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy and neurovascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve for the treatment of facial pain. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 64:983–989. 2006.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Kanpolat Y, Savas A, Bekar A and Berk C: Percutaneous controlled radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: 25-year experience with 1,600 patients. Neurosurgery. 48:524–532. 2001.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Tronnier VM, Rasche D, Hamer J, Kienle AL and Kunze S: Treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: Comparison of long-term outcome after radiofrequency rhizotomy and microvascular decompression. Neurosurgery. 48:1261–1267. 2001.PubMed/NCBI


Lee KH, Chang JW, Park YG and Chung SS: Microvascular decompression and percutaneous rhizotomy in trigeminal neuralgia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 68:196–199. 1997.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Oturai AB, Jensen K, Eriksen J and Madsen F: Neurosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: Comparison of alcohol block, neurectomy, and radiofrequency coagulation. Clin J Pain. 12:311–315. 1996.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Taha JM, Tew JM and Buncher CR: A prospective 15-year follow up of 154 consecutive patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated by percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg. 83:989–993. 1995.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Tan LK, Robinson SN and Chatterjee S: Glycerol versus radiofrequency rhizotomy-a comparison of their efficacy in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Br J Neurosurg. 9:165–169. 1995.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Broggi G, Franzini A, Giorgi C, Servello D and Brock S: Trigeminal neuralgia: New surgical strategies. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 58:171–173. 1993.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Hamid AI, Qureshi AA and Bhatti IH: Percutaneous radiofrequency retrogasserian rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. J Pak Med Assoc. 43:132–133. 1993.PubMed/NCBI


Zakrzewska JM and Thomas DG: Patient's assessment of outcome after three surgical procedures for the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 122:225–230. 1993.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Moraci A, Buonaiuto C, Punzo A, Parlato C and Amalfi R: Trigeminal neuralgia treated by percutaneous thermocoagulation. Comparative analysis of percutaneous thermocoagulation and other surgical procedures. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg). 35:48–53. 1992.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Meglio M, Cioni B, Moles A and Visocchi M: Microvascular decompression versus percutaneous procedures for typical trigeminal neuralgia: Personal experience. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 54-55:76–79. 1990.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Broggi G, Franzini A, Lasio G, Giorgi C and Servello D: Long-term results of percutaneous retrogasserian thermorhizotomy for ‘essential’ trigeminal neuralgia: Considerations in 1000 consecutive patients. Neurosurgery. 26:783–786. 1990.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Fraioli B, Esposito V, Guidetti B, Cruccu G and Manfredi M: Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia by thermocoagulation, glycerolization, and percutaneous compression of the gasserian ganglion and/or retrogasserian rootlets: Long-term results and therapeutic protocol. Neurosurgery. 24:239–245. 1989.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Frank F and Fabrizi AP: Percutaneous surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 97:128–130. 1989.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Mittal B and Thomas D: Controlled thermocoagulation in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 49:932–936. 1986.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Latchaw JP, Hardy RW, Forsythe SB and Cook AF: Trigeminal neuralgia treated by radiofrequency coagulation. J Neurosurg. 59:479–484. 1983.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Tang YZ, Yang LQ, Yue JN, Wang XP, He LL and Ni JX: The optimal radiofrequency temperature in radiofrequency thermocoagulation for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: A cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(e4103)2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Mathews ES and Scrivani SJ: Percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Mt Sinai J Med. 67:288–299. 2000.PubMed/NCBI


Yoon KB, Wiles JR, Miles JB and Nurmikko TJ: Long-term outcome of percutaneous thermocoagulation for trigeminal neuralgia. Anaesthesia. 54:803–808. 1999.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Tew Jr J and Taha J: Percutaneous rhizotomy in the treatment of intractable facial pain (trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, and vagal nerves). In: Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indications, Methods, and Results. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia PA, pp1469-1484, 1995.


Ischia S, Luzzani A, Polati E and Ischia A: Percutaneous controlled thermocoagulation in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 6:96–104. 1990.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Burchiel KJ, Steege TD, Howe JF and Loeser JD: Comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency gangliolysis and microvascular decompression for the surgical management of tic douloureux. Neurosurgery. 9:111–119. 1981.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Filippiadis DK, Markoutsas D, Mazioti A, Tsoukalos G, Papakonstantinou O, Stamatis P, Kelekis A and Tzavoulis D: Computed tomography-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the gasserian ganglion using an alternative to hartel anterior approach: A bicentral study. Pain Physician. 23:293–298. 2020.PubMed/NCBI


Elawamy A, Abdalla EEM and Shehata GA: Effects of pulsed versus conventional versus combined radiofrequency for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: A prospective study. Pain physician. 20:E873–E881. 2017.PubMed/NCBI


Yao P, Hong T, Wang ZB, Ma JM, Zhu YQ, Li HX, Ding YY, Jiang CL and Pan SN: Treatment of bilateral idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia by radiofrequency thermocoagulation at different temperatures. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(e4274)2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Yao P, Hong T, Zhu YQ, Li HX, Wang ZB, Ding YY, Ma JM and Pan SN: Efficacy and safety of continuous radiofrequency thermocoagulation plus pulsed radiofrequency for treatment of V1 trigeminal neuralgia: A prospective cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(e5247)2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Yao P, Deng YY, Hong T, Wang ZB, Ma JM, Zhu YQ, Li HX, Ding YY and Pan SN: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for V2/V3 idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: Effect of treatment temperatures on long-term clinical outcomes: A cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(e4019)2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Singh S, Verma R, Kumar M, Rastogi V and Bogra J: Experience with conventional radiofrequency thermorhizotomy in patients with failed medical management for trigeminal neuralgia. Korean J Pain. 27:260–265. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Huang B, Yao M, Feng Z, Guo J, Zereshki A, Leong M and Qian X: CT-guided percutaneous infrazygomatic radiofrequency neurolysis through foramen rotundum to treat V2 trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Med. 15:1418–1428. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Udupi BP, Chouhan RS, Dash HH, Bithal PK and Prabhakar H: Comparative evaluation of percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizolysis and radiofrequency thermocoagulation techniques in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 70:407–412. 2012.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Huibin Q, Jianxing L, Guangyu H and Dianen F: The treatment of first division idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia with radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the peripheral branches compared to conventional radiofrequency. J Clin Neurosci. 16:1425–1429. 2009.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Zakrzewska JM, Jassim S and Bulman SJ: A prospective, longitudinal study on patients with trigeminal neuralgia who underwent radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion. Pain. 79:51–58. 1999.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Scrivani SJ, Keith DA, Mathews ES and Kaban LB: Percutaneous stereotactic differential radiofrequency thermal rhizotomy for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 57:104–111. 1999.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Erdine S, Ozyalcin NS, Cimen A, Celik M, Talu GK and Disci R: Comparison of pulsed radiofrequency with conventional radiofrequency in the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Eur J Pain. 11:309–313. 2007.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Laitinen LV, Brophy BP and Bergenheim AT: Sensory disturbance following percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy. Br J Neurosurg. 3:471–477. 1989.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


de Siqueira SRDT, da Nóbrega JCM, de Siqueira JTT and Teixeira MJ: Frequency of postoperative complications after balloon compression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: Prospective study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 102:e39–e45. 2006.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Du Y, Yang D, Dong X, Du Q, Wang H and Yu W: Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) of trigeminal ganglion for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD). Ir J Med Sci. 184:745–751. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Brown JA and Gouda JJ: Percutaneous balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 8:53–62. 1997.PubMed/NCBI


Teo MK and Suttner NJ: Effective management of lower divisional pain in trigeminal neuralgia using balloon traction. Br J Neurosurg. 29:343–346. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Abdennebi B and Guenane L: Technical considerations and outcome assessment in retrogasserian balloon compression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Series of 901 patients. Surg Neurol Int. 5(118)2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Chen JF, Tu PH and Lee ST: Repeated percutaneous balloon compression for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia: A long-term study. World Neurosurgery. 77:352–356. 2012.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Zhao WX, Wang Q, He MW, Yang LQ, Wu BS and Ni JX: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with pulsed radiofrequency helps relieve postoperative complications of trigeminal neuralgia. Genet Mol Res. 14:7616–7623. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Li X, Ni J, Yang L, Wu B, He M, Zhang X, Ma L and Sun H: A prospective study of Gasserian ganglion pulsed radiofrequency combined with continuous radiofrequency for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Clin Neurosci. 19:824–828. 2012.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Wu H, Zhou J, Chen J, Gu Y, Shi L and Ni H: Therapeutic efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Res. 12:423–441. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Guo Z, Wu B, Du C, Cheng M and Tian Y: Stereotactic approach combined with 3D CT reconstruction for difficult-to-access foramen ovale on radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the gasserian ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Med. 17:1704–1716. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Kara A, Kurtoglu Z, Tekdemir I, Elhan A, Uzmansel D and Yapici D: Measurements for the direct approach to the oval foramen to apply mandibular nerve blockade. J Craniofac Surg. 23:938–942. 2012.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Kodama Y, Seo K, Tanaka R, Arashiyama T, Ajima H and Takagi R: Placement of mandibular nerve block using computed tomography to locate the foramen ovale in a patient with severe dislocation after segmental mandiblectomy. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 47:407–408. 2009.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Plantevin F, Pascal J, Morel J, Roussier M, Charier D, Prades JM, Auboyer C and Molliex S: Effect of mandibular nerve block on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing oropharyngeal carcinoma surgery under general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 99:708–712. 2007.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Stajcic Z and Todorovic L: Blocks of the foramen rotundum and the oval foramen: A reappraisal of extraoral maxillary and mandibular nerve injections. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 35:328–333. 1997.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Umino M, Kohase H, Ideguchi S and Sakurai N: Long-term pain control in trigeminal neuralgia with local anesthetics using an indwelling catheter in the mandibular nerve. Clin J Pain. 18:196–199. 2002.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar


Ding W, Chen S, Wang R, Cai J, Cheng Y, Yu L, Li Q, Deng F, Zhu S and Yu W: Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for trigeminal neuralgia using neuronavigation-guided puncture from a mandibular angle. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(e4940)2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

Related Articles

Journal Cover

Volume 23 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
Spandidos Publications style
Wang Z, Wang Z, Li K, Su X, Du C and Tian Y: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Exp Ther Med 23: 17, 2022
Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, K., Su, X., Du, C., & Tian, Y. (2022). Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 23, 17.
Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, K., Su, X., Du, C., Tian, Y."Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 23.1 (2022): 17.
Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, K., Su, X., Du, C., Tian, Y."Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 23, no. 1 (2022): 17.