AG490 ameliorates early brain injury via inhibition of JAK2/STAT3‑mediated regulation of HMGB1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Ji‑Yang An
- Hong‑Gang Pang
- Ting‑Qin Huang
- Jin‑Ning Song
- Dan‑Dong Li
- Yong‑Lin Zhao
- Xu‑Dong Ma
Published online on: November 22, 2017
Copyright: © An et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a classic damage‑associated molecular pattern that has an important role in the pathological inflammatory response. In vitro studies have demonstrated that the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of HMGB1 expression, mediating the inflammatory response. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate JAK2/STAT3 pathway involvement in the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)‑dependent regulation of HMGB1, using an in vivo rat model. A SAH model was established by endovascular perforation. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to analyze HMGB1 expression after SAH. In addition, the effects of AG490 after SAH on JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, HMGB1 expression and brain damage were evaluated. The results of the present study demonstrated that JAK2/STAT3 was significantly phosphorylated (P<0.05) and the total HMGB1 protein level was significantly increased (P<0.05) after SAH. In addition, the cytosolic HMGB1 level after SAH demonstrated an initial increase followed by a decrease to the control level, while the nuclear HMGB1 level after SAH demonstrated the opposite trend, with an initial decrease and subsequent increase. AG490 administration after SAH significantly inhibited JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation (P<0.05), suppressed the expression and translocation of HMGB1, reduced cortical apoptosis, brain edema and neurological deficits. These results demonstrated the involvement of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in HMGB1 regulation after SAH.