Effect of inducer and inhibitor probes on DNA adduction of benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene and their roles in defining bioactivation mechanism(s)
Published online on: April 1, 1996
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In this study, we used DNA adducts as the endpoint to reflect on the type and amount of electrophilic metabolites formed in a cell-free system, which were 'trapped' with DNA and the resultant adducts analyzed by a highly sensitive (32)p- postlabeling assay. Incubation of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) (10 mu M) with liver microsomes and S-9 fractions from uninduced and beta-naphthoflavone (beta-NF)-induced rats and NADPH-generating system resulted in two major adducts, one derived from the interaction of benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide with deoxyguanosine (BPDE-dG) and the other from further activation of 9-OH-BP. beta-NF treatment increased the microsomal DNA adduction capability: both BPDE-dG and 9-OH-BP adducts were enhanced to 19,600 and 26,600 adducts/10(9) nucleotides compared to 2,800 and 1,700 adducts/10(9) nucleotides with uninduced microsomes, respectively. An even greater enhancement of both adducts was observed when S-9 was substituted for microsomes. These results suggest the involvement of CYP1A1 in BP activation because of the known role of beta-NF in the induction of this enzyme. Further, evidence of the involvement of CYP1A1 was obtained by using alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF), a known inhibitor of CYP1A family. Addition of alpha-NF (50 mu M) to the activation system almost completely (>95%) abolished both the adducts. These results are consistent with selective inhibition of CYP1A1, the isozyme involved in the conversion of BP to BP-7,8-diol. Further, cyclohexene oxide (Chox) (100 mu M), a known inhibitor of epoxide hydrolase reduced BPDE-dG adduct by 55% over that in the absence of the inhibitor, suggesting its epoxide origin; 9-OH-BP adduct was, however slightly increased. Enhanced DNA adduction of another class of carcinogen, 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (20 mu M) with induced S-9 and microsomes, and inhibition in the presence of alpha-NF was also observed which is consistent with the involvement of CYP1A2 in the initial activation of aromatic amines. Results from these experiments suggest that the approach of using a battery of inducer/inhibitor probes and their influence on DNA adduction capability of subcellular fractions coupled with P-32-postlabeling can be fully exploited as important tools in defining metabolic pathway(s) that may be involved in the bioactivation of unknown compounds.