Apolipoprotein status in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications (Review)
- Puhong Zhang
- Jialin Gao
- Chun Pu
- Yao Zhang
Published online on: October 19, 2017
Dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by high plasma triglyceride concentrations, reduced high‑density lipoprotein concentrations and increased small density low‑density lipoprotein concentrations. Dyslipidaemia may lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other complications. Apolipoproteins mainly comprise six species, apolipoprotein (apo)A, apoB, apoC, apoD, apoE and apoM, which are important components of plasma lipoproteins that carry lipids and stabilize the structure of lipoproteins. Complex metabolic disorders of apolipoproteins are present in T2DM, such as high plasma apoB, apoC‑II, apoC‑III and apoE concentrations, and low plasma apoA‑I and apoM concentrations, which are associated with dyslipidaemia and interrelated complications. Plasma concentrations of some apolipoproteins are also altered in T2DM with CVD or other complications. Several apolipoprotein polymorphisms are associated with diabetes susceptibility and/or lipid metabolism. The present review described the metabolic disorders of apolipoproteins in T2DM and its complications, and the relationship between each major apolipoprotein and T2DM, as well as the effects of apolipoprotein polymorphisms on diabetic susceptibility.