Metronomic chemotherapy remodel cancer‑associated fibroblasts to decrease chemoresistance of gastric cancer in nude mice

  • Authors:
    • Chao Wang
    • Wenqi Xi
    • Jinling Jiang
    • Jun Ji
    • Yingyan Yu
    • Zhenggang Zhu
    • Jun Zhang
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 16, 2017     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7197
  • Pages:7903-7909
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Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate whether capecitabine or 5‑fluorouracil (5‑Fu) chemotherapy with the metronomic pattern may cause significant chemoresistance compared with the traditional pattern, and whether CAFs are involved in drug resistance. SGC‑7901 cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice, and the mice were divided into five groups: The control group, intraperitoneally injected with normal saline; the 5‑Fu conventional dose group [5‑Fu maximum tolerated dose (MTD) group], intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with an 1‑week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the capecitabine conventional dose group (capecitabine MTD group), intragastric 500 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with a 1‑week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the 5‑Fu metronomic group [5‑Fu low‑dose metronomic (LDM) group], intraperitoneally injected with 15 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks; and the capecitabine metronomic group (capecitabine LDM group), intragastric administration at 200 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks. The chemotherapy resistance markers [glutathione transferase Pi (GSTP) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)] were detected by immunohistochemical staining (IHC), and the association of the expression of these markers with the chemotherapy administration patterns was analyzed. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the cancer‑associated fibroblast (CAF) marker α‑smooth muscle actin were also examined by IHC to illustrate the possible mechanism of chemoresistance. The expression of GSTP and MDR1 in the MTD groups was significantly higher compared with those of the LDM groups (P<0.01). Furthermore, the number of CAFs and the level of VEGF in the MTD groups were significantly higher compared with those of the LDM groups (P<0.05). The low dose metronomic chemotherapy did not increase the risk of chemoresistance compared with the conventional dose traditional chemotherapy in terms of capecitabine or 5‑Fu, the increasing amount of CAFs in the microenvironment of cancer cell following therapy may protect cell from capecitabine or 5‑Fu via producing VEGF to increase vascularization.

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December 2017
Volume 14 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

2016 Impact Factor: 1.39
Ranked #68/217 Oncology
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APA
Wang, C., Xi, W., Jiang, J., Ji, J., Yu, Y., Zhu, Z., & Zhang, J. (2017). Metronomic chemotherapy remodel cancer‑associated fibroblasts to decrease chemoresistance of gastric cancer in nude mice. Oncology Letters, 14, 7903-7909. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7197
MLA
Wang, C., Xi, W., Jiang, J., Ji, J., Yu, Y., Zhu, Z., Zhang, J."Metronomic chemotherapy remodel cancer‑associated fibroblasts to decrease chemoresistance of gastric cancer in nude mice". Oncology Letters 14.6 (2017): 7903-7909.
Chicago
Wang, C., Xi, W., Jiang, J., Ji, J., Yu, Y., Zhu, Z., Zhang, J."Metronomic chemotherapy remodel cancer‑associated fibroblasts to decrease chemoresistance of gastric cancer in nude mice". Oncology Letters 14, no. 6 (2017): 7903-7909. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7197