Methylation of the L1 gene and integration of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 in cervical carcinoma
and premalignant lesions
- Francisco Israel Torres‑Rojas
- Luz del Carmen Alarcón‑Romero
- Marco Antonio Leyva‑Vázquez
- Julio Ortiz‑Ortiz
- Miguel Ángel Mendoza‑Catalán
- Daniel Hernández‑Sotelo
- Oscar Del Moral‑Hernández
- Hugo Alberto Rodríguez‑Ruiz
- Dinorah Leyva‑Illades
- Eugenia Flores-Alfaro
- Berenice Illades‑Aguiar
Published online on: December 13, 2017
Copyright: © Torres‑Rojas et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical carcinoma (CC). Viral integration into the host chromosomes is associated with neoplastic progression, and epigenetic changes may occur as a result. The objective of the present study was to analyze HPV L1 gene methylation and to compare the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and L1 methylation analysis as methods for detecting HPV integration. Cervical scrapes or biopsy samples positive for HPV 16 or 18, from 187 female patients with CC, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or no intraepithelial lesion (non‑IL) were analyzed. Methylation of the L1 gene was determined using bisulfite modification followed by PCR, and HPV integration was subsequently analyzed. HPV 16 L1 gene methylation was revealed to increase with histological grade, with statistically significant differences observed as follows: Low‑grade SIL vs. CC, P<0.0001 and non‑IL vs. CC, P<0.0001. HPV 18 L1 gene methylation also increased according to histological grade, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. Methylation at CpG site 5608 of the HPV 16 L1 gene was associated with all grades of cervical lesions, whereas methylation at CpG site 5617 demonstrated the strongest association with CC (odds ratio, 42.5; 95% confidence interval, 4.7‑1861; P<0.0001). The concordance rates between the various methods for the detection of the physical status of HPV 16 and HPV 18 were 96.1% for qPCR and ISH, 76.7% for qPCR and L1 gene methylation, and 84.8% for ISH and L1 gene methylation. In conclusion, methylation of the HPV 16 L1 gene increases significantly according to the grade of the cervical lesion, and methylation at CpG sites 5608 and 5617 of this gene may be used as prognostic biomarkers. ISH and L1 gene methylation have good concordance with qPCR with regards to the detection of HPV integration. Therefore, these are useful methods in determining the physical state of HPV.