XK469, a topo IIβ inhibitor, induces apoptosis in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia through multiple pathways
- Edith Mensah-Osman
- Ayad Al-Katib
- Mahmoud Dandashi
- Ramzi Mohammad
- Corresponding author:
Published online on: Monday, December 1, 2003
We have previously reported that XK469 inhibited topoisomerase (topo) IIβ, in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia cell line (WSU-WM) however the inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce apoptosis. In this study, the apoptotic potential of XK469 and its mechanism in WSU-WM cell line was investigated. Exposure of WSU-WM cells to XK469 caused a decrease in viable cell number in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, XK469 caused the activation of caspase 3 resulting in subsequent cleavage of PARP. These events were preceded by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure of cells to cyclosporin A prevented the release of cytochrome c to cytosol and reduced the loss of viability. XK469 caused the activation of p53 with up-regulation of p53-dependent proteins such as Bax, p21, Gadd 45 and cyclin B1 in association with G2M arrest. The addition of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) inhibitor (NaBH4) inhibited up-regulation of p53 and p53 related molecules by XK469 and reduced the loss of viability. Pre-incubation with NOK-1, a monoclonal antibody that prevents Fas-Fas ligand interaction and is inhibitory to Fas signaling interfered with XK469 induced activation of caspase 8 and also reduced the loss of viability. Simultaneous exposure of all three inhibitors (cyclosporin A, NaBH4 and NOK-1) abrogated the toxicity of XK469 by 95%. These data define multiple sequences of biochemical events that mediate cell death induced by XK469. Our study suggests a complex mechanistic cascade of XK469-mediated apoptosis that involves Fas signaling pathway, ubiquitination, p53 activation and cytochrome c release.