Human FOX gene family (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Masuko Katoh
    • Masaru Katoh
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: Monday, November 1, 2004
  • Pages: 1495-1500
  • DOI: 10.3892/ijo.25.5.1495

Abstract

Human Forkhead-box (FOX) gene family consists of at least 43 members, including FOXA1, FOXA2, FOXA3, FOXB1, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXD1, FOXD2, FOXD3, FOXD4, FOXD5 (FOXD4L1), FOXD6 (FOXD4L3), FOXE1, FOXE2, FOXE3, FOXF1, FOXF2, FOXG1 (FOXG1B), FOXH1, FOXI1, FOXJ1, FOXJ2, FOXJ3, FOXK1, FOXK2, FOXL1, FOXL2, FOXM1, FOXN1, FOXN2 (HTLF), FOXN3 (CHES1), FOXN4, FOXN5 (FOXR1), FOXN6 (FOXR2), FOXO1 (FOXO1A), FOXO2 (FOXO6), FOXO3 (FOXO3A), FOXO4 (MLLT7), FOXP1, FOXP2, FOXP3, FOXP4, and FOXQ1. FOXE3-FOXD2 (1p33), FOXQ1-FOXF2-FOXC1 (6p25.3), and FOXF1-FOXC2-FOXL1 (16q24.1) loci are FOX gene clusters within the human genome. Members of FOX subfamilies A-G, I-L and Q were grouped into class 1 FOX proteins, while members of FOX subfamilies H and M-P were grouped into class 2 FOX proteins. C-terminal basic region within the FOX domain was the common feature of class 1 FOX proteins. FOXH1 and FOXO1 mRNAs are expressed in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXE3, FOXL2, FOXN1, FOXP2 and FOXP3 genes are mutated in human congenital disorders. FOXA1 gene is amplified and over-expressed in esophageal and lung cancer. FOXM1 gene is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer and basal cell carcinoma due to the transcriptional regulation by Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway. FOXO1 gene is fused to PAX3 or PAX7 genes in rhabdomyosarcoma. FOXO3 and FOXO4 genes are fused to MLL gene in hematological malignancies. Deregulation of FOX family genes leads to congenital disorders, diabetes mellitus, or carcinogenesis. Expression profiles, genetic alterations and epigenetic changes of FOX family genes as well as binding proteins and target genes of FOX family transcription factors should be comprehensively investigated to develop novel therapeutics and preventives for human diseases.
Journal Cover

November 2004
Volume 25 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

2013 Impact Factor: 2.773
Ranked #30/202 Oncology
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APA
Katoh, M., & Katoh, M. (2004). Human FOX gene family (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 25(5), 1495-1500.
MLA
Katoh, and Masaru Katoh. "Human FOX gene family (Review)." International Journal of Oncology International Journal of Oncology 25.5 (2004): 1495-1500.
Chicago
Katoh, and Masaru Katoh. "Human FOX gene family (Review)." International Journal of Oncology International Journal of Oncology 25 no. 5 (2004): 1495-1500.