Detection of breast cancer biomarkers in nipple aspirate fluid by SELDI-TOF and their identification by combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
- Authors: Jianbo He, Jeffrey Gornbein, Dejun Shen, Ming Lu, Leonor E. Rovai, Hungyi Shau, John Katz, Julian P. Whitelegge, Kym F. Faull, Helena R. Chang
Published online on: Monday, January 1, 2007
- Pages: 145-154
- DOI: 10.3892/ijo.30.1.145
Screening mammography is the most effective tool available for breast cancer detection. While screening mammography saves lives, it has intrinsic problems that limit further improvement. We hypothesize that protein biomarkers in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) may separate the cancer from the non-cancer state, and therefore can be used for breast cancer detection. In this study the proteins in NAF were analyzed by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF) in the m/z 5,000-85,000 range. Two methods were used to normalize spectra. Then differentially expressed signals that separate cancer from non-cancer conditions were selected by two specifically developed statistical algorithms. Proteins of interest were identified by combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A set of 8 markers were identified which collectively gave 63% sensitivity, 89% specificity and 76% accuracy for distinguishing cancer from non-cancer. Further improvements in the specificity and sensitivity of this strategy could come from the development of methods for more precise quantification of the biomarkers of interest and also from focusing on the low abundant components that are not evident when unfractionated NAF is analyzed directly.