Integrative genomic analyses on GLI2: Mechanism of Hedgehog priming through basal GLI2 expression, and interaction map of stem cell signaling network with P53
- Yuriko Katoh
- Masaru Katoh
- Corresponding author:
Published online on: Wednesday, October 1, 2008
Hedgehog-binding to Patched family receptors results in Smoothened-mediated activation of MAP3K10 (MST) and inactivation of SUFU. MAP3K10-induced DYRK2 phosphorylation combined with SUFU inhibition results in the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of GLI2 for transcriptional activation of GLI1, CCND1, CCND2, FOXA2, FOXC2, FOXP3, FOXQ1, RUNX2, and JAG2. Here, integrative genomic analyses on GLI2 orthologs were carried out. Rat Gli2 complete coding sequence was determined by assembling nucleotide sequences of exons 1, 2, and 5'-truncated rat Gli2 RefSeq (NM_001107169.1). GLI2 orthologs were more related to GLI3 orthologs than to GLI1 orthologs lacking the N-terminal repressor domain. βTRCP1 (FBXW1)-binding DSYxxxS motif was conserved in GLI2 and GLI3 orthologs, while βTRCP2 (FBXW11)-binding DSGxxxxxxxxxS motif in GLI2 and GLI1 orthologs. Human GLI2 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, NT2 cells, fetal lung, fetal heart, regenerating liver, gastric cancer, and other tumors. Mouse Gli2 mRNA was expressed in unfertilized egg, ES cells, and EG cells. Tandem RRRCWWGYYY motifs for P53, P63 or P73, and also four conserved bHLH-binding sites were identified within GLI2 proximal promoter region. Interaction map of P53 and stem cell signaling network were then constructed. P53-induced NOTCH1 upregulation leads to HES1, HES5, HEY1, HEY2 or HEYL upregulation for the repression of tissue specific bHLH transcriptional activators. DYRK2 functions as a positive regulator of P53-mediated apoptosis, and also as a negative regulator of the Hedgehog signaling cascade. GLI2 expression is regulated based on the balance of P53, Notch, and TGF-β signaling, and Hedgehog signaling activation results in cell survival and proliferation due to transcriptional activation of Hedgehog-target genes, and also partly due to perturbation of P53-mediated transcriptional regulation.