|Photolon™ - Photosensitization induces apoptosis via ROS-mediated cross-talk between mitochondria and lysosomes|
Authors: Mohamed Ali-Seyed, Ramaswamy Bhuvaneswari, Khee Chee Soo, Malini Olivo
Affiliations: Division of Medical Science, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 169610 Singapore, School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
Published online on: Friday, July 1, 2011
The localization of photosensitizers in the subcellular compartments during photodynamic therapy (PDT) plays a major role in the cell destruction; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular localization of Chlorin e6-PVP (Photolon™) in malignant and normal cells. Our study involves the characterization of the structural determinants of subcellular localization of Photolon, and how subcellular localization affects the selective toxicity of Photolon towards tumor cells. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescent organelle probes; we examined the subcellular localization of Photolon™ in the murine colon carcinoma CT-26 and normal fibroblast (NHLC) cells. Our results demonstrated that after 30 min of incubation, the distribution of Photolon was localized mainly in the cytoplasmic organelles including the mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, around the nuclear envelope and also in the nucleus but not in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas in NHLC cells, Photolon was found to be localized minimally only in the nucleus not in other organelles studied. The relationship between subcellular localization of Photolon and PDT-induced apoptosis was investigated. Apoptotic cell death was judged by the formation of known apoptotic hallmarks including, the phosphatidylserine externalization (PS), PARP cleavage, a substrate for caspase-3 and the formation of apoptotic nuclei. At the irradiation dose of 1 J/cm2, the percentage of apoptotic cells was 80%, respectively. This study provided substantial evidence that Photolon preferentially localized in the subcellular organelles in the following order: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus and subsequent photodamage of the mitochondria and lysosomes played an important role in PDT-mediated apoptosis CT-26 cells. Our results based on the cytoplasmic organelles and the intranuclear localization extensively enhance the efficacy of PDT with appropriate photosensitizer and light dose and support the idea that PDT can contribute to elimination of malignant cells by inducing apoptosis, which is of physiological significance.