|In vitro demonstration of breast cancer tumor cell sub-populations based on interleukin-1/tumor necrosis factor induction of interleukin-8 expression|
Authors: Alexander G. Pantschenko, Irina Pushkar, Lauri J. Miller, Yan Ping Wang, Kathleen Anderson, Ziv Peled, Scott H. Kurtzman, Donald L. Kreutzer
Department of Pathology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been identified as an angiogenesis factor (AF) as well as a tumor cell chemotactic factor and mitogen. Recent in vivo studies have demonstrated the expression of IL-8, IL-1 and TNF, as well their receptors, on various sub-populations of tumor cells in human breast cancer (HBC). Since pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF are known inducers of IL-8 in non-tumor cells, we hypothesize that IL-1/TNF may act as an IL-8 inducer in HBC, and thus enhance HBC tumor progression. To begin to test this hypothesis, we evaluated the ability of: a) human breast cancer cell lines (BCC) and normal human breast epithelial cell lines (BEC) to produce IL-8 in vitro; and b) IL-1 and TNF to regulate the expression of IL-8. In general, basal IL-8 expression was low in all 8 cell lines examined. TNF-α and TNF-β induced a 3- to 24-fold increase in IL-8 protein expression of BEC, and a 2- to 8-fold increased IL-8 expression in estrogen-independent BCC cell lines and no significant IL-8 expression in estrogen-dependent cell lines. Conversely, IL-1α and IL-1β, induced a 5- to 104-fold stimulation of BEC and a 330 to 1,138-fold increase in IL-8 expression in estrogen independent BCC. These observations demonstrate the ability of HBC cells to produce IL-8 in vitro and further indicate that IL-1 is a potent inducer of IL-8 expression by BEC and BCC. Furthermore, this in vitro data support the hypothesis, that within the HBC tumor microenvironment, tumor cells exist that respond to pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1) stimulation (i.e. MDA-MB-231) and those that do not (i.e. MCF-7). Additionally, HBC tumor cell lines that can be induced to express high levels of IL-8 tend to be associated with a more aggressive phenotype.