p21Waf1/Cip1 is a common target induced by short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors (valproic acid, tributyrin and sodium butyrate) in neuroblastoma cells
- Authors: Paola Rocchi, Roberto Tonelli, Consuelo Camerin, Stefania Purgato, Raffaele Fronza, Fabrizio Bianucci, Francesco Guerra, Andrea Pession, Anna Maria Ferreri
Published on: 01 June 2005
- Pages: 1139-1144
Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) determine the acetylation status of histones, and thereby control the regulation of gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have been found to inhibit the growth of a variety of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated previously that the short-chain fatty acid compound butyrate and its derivative tributyrin (both HDAC inhibitors) arrest cell growth and induce differentiation in human neuroblastoma (NB) cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on proliferation and differentiation in human NB cells (SJ-N-KP, AF8). Treatment with VPA resulted in a strong inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell differentiation, as revealed by neurite outgrowth and increase of acetylcholinesterase specific activity. Moreover, we addressed the question of whether the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 are involved in the mechanism of action of members of the short-chain fatty acids class (VPA, sodium butyrate and tributyrin) of HDAC inhibitors, in human NB cells. We demonstrated that p21Cip1 is a common target of induction of transcription and protein expression for all the three compounds, while only VPA induced a concomitant increase of p27Kip1 gene expression. These results suggest that p21Cip1 could be involved in the inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation in human NB cells induced by treatment with VPA or tributyrin or sodium butyrate. Moreover, p21Cip1 could be applied in the molecular monitoring of drug action in the possible therapeutic application of these short-chain fatty acid members of HDAC inhibitors for human NB treatment.