The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro the relationship between ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) levels, and DNA damage of the human benign prostate hyperplasia BPH-1 cell line, and two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP, which is androgen-sensitive, and DU-145, which is androgen non-responsive. The cells were analysed after exposure to 1.0 or 2.0 Gy of X-ray radiations. The response to IR treatment was evaluated by examining: ROS production by quantitative analysis with fluorescent probe 5 and 6-carboxy-2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate bis acetomethyl ester (DCFH-DA), GSH levels by 2,2'-dinitro-5,5'-dithio-benzoic acid (DTNB), and lipoperoxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. To study IR-induced DNA damage, Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis or comet assay was performed. DU-145 cells were characterized by higher DNA damage, more evident extent of lipid peroxidation, and slighter levels of ROS and GSH compared to BPH-1 or LNCaP. Human benign BPH-1 and cancer LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines are not equal regarding their capability of IR resistance in terms of ROS production, antioxidant potential, IR-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.