Open Access

Lenalidomide use in multiple myeloma (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Chao-Wei Zhang
    • Ya-Nan Wang
    • Xue-Ling Ge
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 28, 2023
  • Article Number: 7
  • Copyright: © Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Lenalidomide is a second‑generation new immunomodulatory medication used to treat multiple myeloma (MM). Its mechanism of action involves affecting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin‑6, cytochrome c, caspase‑8, as well as other factors including immunological modulation and the direct killing of cells, among others, rendering it a fundamental medication, useful for the treatment of MM. Combining lenalidomide with other medications such dexamethasone, bortezomib, ixazomib, carfilzomib and daratumumab can markedly alleviate MM. When autologous‑hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) cannot be utilized to treat newly diagnosed individuals with MM (NDMM), monotherapy maintenance following lenalidomide and dexamethasone may be employed. Following ASCT, single‑agent maintenance with lenalidomide can be performed as an additional treatment. The combination of bortezomib and lenalidomide has been demonstrated to be associated with favorable response rates, tolerable toxicity, and therapeutic benefits although caution is warranted to prevent the onset of peripheral neuropathy with its use. A new‑generation oral drug with an excellent safety profile, ixazomib, is more practical and therapeutically applicable in relapsed refractory MM. However, the frequent occurrence of cardiovascular events, hematocrit, and infections with it require flexible adjustment in its clinical application. Carfilzomib produces a rapid and profound response in patients with NDMM eligible for transplantation, but its cardiovascular side effects need to be closely monitored. The primary aim of the present review was to examine the pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide, as well as the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide‑based treatments with reference to data from clinical trials and real‑world studies.
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Zhang C, Wang Y and Ge X: Lenalidomide use in multiple myeloma (Review). Mol Clin Oncol 20: 7, 2024
Zhang, C., Wang, Y., & Ge, X. (2024). Lenalidomide use in multiple myeloma (Review). Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 20, 7.
Zhang, C., Wang, Y., Ge, X."Lenalidomide use in multiple myeloma (Review)". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 20.1 (2024): 7.
Zhang, C., Wang, Y., Ge, X."Lenalidomide use in multiple myeloma (Review)". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 20, no. 1 (2024): 7.