Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions

  • Authors:
    • Dong‑Seon Kim
    • Young Min Kang
    • Wen Yi Jin
    • Yoon‑Young Sung
    • Goya Choi
    • Ho Kyoung Kim
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: June 6, 2014     https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2014.294
  • Pages: 675-680
Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin‑Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2‑diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high‑performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 µg/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68‑12.7, 0.69‑9.86 and 0.05‑3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium.

References

1 

Heo J: Dong-eui-bo-gam. 14751610.(In Korean).

2 

Yang MY, Huang CN, Chan KC, Yang YS, Peng CH and Wang CJ: Mulberry leaf polyphenols possess antiatherogenesis effect via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation. J Agric Food Chem. 59:1985–1995. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

3 

Naowaboot J, Pannangpetch P, Kukongviriyapan V, Kukongviriyapan U, Nakmareong S and Itharat A: Mulberry leaf extract restores arterial pressure in streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetic rats. Nutr Res. 29:602–608. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

4 

Yang NC, Jhou KY and Tseng CY: Antihypertensive effect of mulberry leaf aqueous extract containing γ-aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 132:1796–1801. 2012.

5 

Oh KS, Ryu SY, Lee S, Seo HW, Oh BK, Kim YS and Lee ΒΗ: Melanin-concentrating hormone-1 receptor antagonism and anti-obesity effects of ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves in diet-induced obese mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 122:216–220. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

6 

Park JM, Bong HY, Jeong HI, Kim YK, Kim JY and Kwon O: Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats. Nutr Res Pract. 3:272–278. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

7 

Katsube T, Yamasaki M, Shiwaku K, Ishijima T, Matsumoto I, Abe K and Yamasaki Υ: Effect of flavonol glycoside in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf on glucose metabolism and oxidative stress in liver in diet-induced obese mice. J Sci Food Agric. 90:2386–2392. 2010.PubMed/NCBI

8 

Hsu LS, Ho HH, Lin MC, Chyau CC, Peng JS and Wang CJ: Mulberry water extracts (MWEs) ameliorated carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damages in rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 50:3086–3093. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

9 

Kim SY, Gao JJ, Lee WC, Ryu KS, Lee KR and Kim YC: Antioxidative flavonoids from the leaves of Morus alba. Arch Pharm Res. 22:81–85. 1999. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

10 

Katsube T, Imawaka N, Kawano Y, Yamazaki Y, Shiwaku K and Yamane Y: Antioxidant flavonol glycosides in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves isolated based on LDL antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 97:25–31. 2006.

11 

Mok JY, Jeong SI, Kim JH and Jang SI: Synergic effect of quercetin and astragalin from mulberry leaves on anti-inflammation. Kor J Ori Physiol Pathol. 25:830–836. 2011.

12 

Bravo L: Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev. 56:317–333. 1998.PubMed/NCBI

13 

Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS and Heinonen M: Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 47:3954–3962. 1999.PubMed/NCBI

14 

Middleton E Jr, Kandaswami C and Theoharides TC: The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease and cancer. Pharmacol Rev. 52:673–751. 2000.PubMed/NCBI

15 

Soobrattee MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon-Ramma A, Aruoma OI and Bahorun T: Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and actions. Mutat Res. 579:200–213. 2005. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

16 

Aruoma OI: Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 75:199–212. 1998. View Article : Google Scholar

17 

Fang J, Seki T and Maeda H: Therapeutic strategies by modulating oxygen stress in cancer and inflammation. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 61:290–302. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

18 

Doi K, Kojima T and Fujimoto Y: Mulberry leaf extract inhibits the oxidative modification of rabbit and human low density lipoprotein. Biol Pharm Bull. 23:1066–1071. 2000. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

19 

Folin O and Denis W: On phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic compounds as color reagents. J Biol Chem. 12:239–243. 1912.

20 

Blois MS: Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 181:1199–1200. 1958. View Article : Google Scholar

21 

Li X, Wu X and Huang L: Correlation between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of radix Angelicae sinensis(Danggui). Molecules. 14:5349–5361. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

22 

Navarro-Núñez L, Lozano ML, Palomo M, Martínez C, Vicente V, Castillo J, Benavente-García O, Diaz-Ricart M, Escolar G and Rivera J: Apigenin inhibits platelet adhesion and thrombus formation and synergizes with aspirin in the suppression of the arachidonic acid pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 56:2970–2976. 2008.PubMed/NCBI

23 

Jung CH, Lee JY, Cho CH and Kim CJ: Anti-asthmatic action of quercetin and rutin in conscious guinea-pigs challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin. Arch Pharm Res. 30:1599–1607. 2007. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

24 

Reddy GB, Muthenna P, Akileshwari C, Saraswat M and Petrash JM: Inhibition of aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation by dietary rutin. Curr Sci. 101:1191–1197. 2011.

25 

Razavi SM, Zahri S, Zarrini G, Nazemiyeh H and Mohammadi S: Biological activity of quercetin-3-O-glucoside, a known plant flavonoid. Bioorg Khim. 35:414–416. 2009.PubMed/NCBI

26 

Rogerio AP, Kanashiro A, Fontanari C, da Silva EV, Lucisano-Valim YM, Soares EG and Faccioli LH: Anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and isoquercitrin in experimental murine allergic asthma. Inflamm Res. 56:402–408. 2007. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

27 

Choi J, Kang HJ, Kim SZ, Kwon TO, Jeong SI and Jang SI: Antioxidant effect of astragalin isolated from the leaves of Morus alba L. against free radical-induced oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells. Arch Pharm Res. 36:912–917. 2013.PubMed/NCBI

28 

Lee HB, Kim EK, Park SJ, Bang SG, Kim TG and Chung DW: Isolation and anti-inflammatory effect of astragalin synthesized by enzymatic hydrolysis of tea seed extract. J Sci Food Agric. 91:2315–2321. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

Related Articles

Journal Cover

September 2014
Volume 2 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 2049-9434
Online ISSN:2049-9442

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
APA
Kim, D., Kang, Y.M., Jin, W.Y., Sung, Y., Choi, G., & Kim, H.K. (2014). Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions. Biomedical Reports, 2, 675-680. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2014.294
MLA
Kim, D., Kang, Y. M., Jin, W. Y., Sung, Y., Choi, G., Kim, H. K."Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions". Biomedical Reports 2.5 (2014): 675-680.
Chicago
Kim, D., Kang, Y. M., Jin, W. Y., Sung, Y., Choi, G., Kim, H. K."Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions". Biomedical Reports 2, no. 5 (2014): 675-680. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2014.294