Alterations in glutathione, nitric oxide and 3‑nitrotyrosine levels following exercise and/or hyperbaric oxygen treatment in mice with diet‑induced diabetes
- Luis Rogelio Gutiérrez-Camacho
- Alexandre Kormanovski
- María Del Carmen Castillo-Hernández
- Gustavo Guevara-Balcázar
- Eleazar Lara-Padilla
Affiliations: Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Mexico City 11340, Mexico
- Published online on: March 11, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1291
Copyright: © Gutiérrez-Camacho
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
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Oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetes. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to oxidative stress, affects the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) in tissues and also regulates important physiological processes. The levels of nitrosative stress, assessed by measuring the levels of 3‑nitrotirosina (3NT) as well as the bioavailability of NO are modulated by exercise and hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exercise and HBO on the levels of NO, 3NT and GSH in tissues of various organs obtained from diabetic mice. Female mice were fed a high‑fat/high‑fructose diet to induce diabetes. Mice with diabetes were subjected to exercise and/or HBO. Initial and final concentrations of NO, 3NT and GSH were assessed in the muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, brain, visceral adipose, thoracic aorta and small intestine. Diabetes did not affect initial values of NO, although it significantly increased the levels of 3NT. The basal level of GSH in the diabetic group was lower than or comparable to that of the control group in the majority of the organs assessed. A negative correlation was observed between 3NT and GSH levels in the initial values of all tissues of the control group only, whereas all pathological tissues showed a positive correlation between NO and GSH. There was an increase or a stabilization of GSH levels in the majority of the organs in all treated mice despite the increase in nitrosative stress.