Open Access

Immunostimulatory effects of cell wall‑based nanoparticles in boiled Glycyrrhizae radix water extracts involves TLR4

  • Authors:
    • Hirofumi Iitsuka
    • Keiichi Koizumi
    • Mikiko Suzaki
    • Yoshiki Otsuka
    • Michiko Jo
    • Naotoshi Shibahara
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: March 23, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1294
  • Copyright: © Iitsuka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

A number of immunostimulant effects of herbal medicines have been reported; however, the underlying mechanisms of their immunostimulatory effects have not been elucidated in detail. Our previous study showed that sugar‑based nanoparticles derived from cell walls acted as the immunostimulatory component of boiled Glycyrrhizae radix water extracts. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which these cell wall‑based nanoparticles functioned as immunostimulants. Mouse macrophage RAW‑blue cells were stimulated by these nanoparticles and several immunological effects were investigated. When phosphorylation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF)‑κB p65 subunit was increased, the expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α were induced via NF‑κB. On the other hand, Toll‑like receptor 4 recognizes cell wall components of bacteria and fungi. In the present study, it was also shown that these cell wall‑based nanoparticles serve an immunostimulatory role as ligands of Toll‑like receptor 4 by RNA interference experiments. The results of the present study suggested that the signaling pathway of nanoparticles obtained from boiled Glycyrrhizae radix water extracts, at least partially involved TLR4 and downstream signaling from this receptor, resulting in the immunostimulatory effects of these nanoparticles in RAW‑blue cells.

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APA
Iitsuka, H., Koizumi, K., Suzaki, M., Otsuka, Y., Jo, M., & Shibahara, N. (1899). Immunostimulatory effects of cell wall‑based nanoparticles in boiled Glycyrrhizae radix water extracts involves TLR4. Biomedical Reports, 0, 0-0. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1294
MLA
Iitsuka, H., Koizumi, K., Suzaki, M., Otsuka, Y., Jo, M., Shibahara, N."Immunostimulatory effects of cell wall‑based nanoparticles in boiled Glycyrrhizae radix water extracts involves TLR4". Biomedical Reports 0.0 (1899): 0-0.
Chicago
Iitsuka, H., Koizumi, K., Suzaki, M., Otsuka, Y., Jo, M., Shibahara, N."Immunostimulatory effects of cell wall‑based nanoparticles in boiled Glycyrrhizae radix water extracts involves TLR4". Biomedical Reports 0, no. 0 (1899): 0-0. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1294