Early biomarkers of nephrotoxicity associated with the use of anti‑VEGF drugs

  • Authors:
    • Natalia Chebotareva
    • Katerina Grechukhina
    • Valerie Mcdonnell
    • Lyudmila Zhukova
    • Tatyana Krasnova
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 7, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2022.1529
  • Article Number: 46
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Abstract

Anti‑angiogenic anticancer drugs that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can cause kidney damage. An early assessment of the risk of nephrotoxicity would allow the development of optimal treatment approaches and allow for relatively safer therapeutic regimens. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of neutrophilic gelatinase‑associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM‑1), hypoxia inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) and nephrin levels in urine as early biomarkers for the nephrotoxicity of anti‑VEGF drugs. The study included 50 patients who received anti‑VEGF drugs (aflibercept, bevacizumab or ramucirumab) for 8 weeks. The levels of KIM‑1, NGAL, HIF‑1α and nephrin in urine samples were determined by ELISA before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. To assess risk factors for nephrotoxicity, a logistic regression analysis was performed with the inclusion of the primary clinical and laboratory parameters. The primary outcome measure was a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at 8 weeks, and nephrotoxicity resulting in discontinuation within 9 months. The primary outcome goal was achieved in 21 (42%) patients treated with anti‑VEGF drugs. Increased NGAL, KIM‑1, HIF‑1α and nephrin levels in urine at 1 week of treatment predicted the development of nephrotoxicity. High sensitivity and specificity of these urinary biomarkers were established by ROC analysis: KIM‑1 [area under the curve (AUC) 0.69], NGAL (AUC 0.7), HIF‑1α (AUC 0.7) and nephrin (AUC 0.7). The unfavorable predictors of nephrotoxicity were an initial decrease in estimated GFR, a history of arterial hypertension, and an increase in urinary concentration KIM‑1 OR of 1.1 [CI 95% 1.02‑1.183], and HIF‑1α OR of 5.6 [CI 95% 3.601‑8.949] (P<0,05) at 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Urinary NGAL, KIM‑1, HIF‑1α and nephrin are early biomarkers of nephrotoxicity following treatment with anti‑VEGF anticancer drugs. The independent risk factors for nephrotoxicity are the initial decrease in GFR, arterial hypertension, and an increase in the concentration of KIM‑1 and HIF‑1α in the urine in the early stages of therapy.

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Spandidos Publications style
Chebotareva N, Grechukhina K, Mcdonnell V, Zhukova L and Krasnova T: Early biomarkers of nephrotoxicity associated with the use of anti‑VEGF drugs. Biomed Rep 16: 46, 2022
APA
Chebotareva, N., Grechukhina, K., Mcdonnell, V., Zhukova, L., & Krasnova, T. (2022). Early biomarkers of nephrotoxicity associated with the use of anti‑VEGF drugs. Biomedical Reports, 16, 46. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2022.1529
MLA
Chebotareva, N., Grechukhina, K., Mcdonnell, V., Zhukova, L., Krasnova, T."Early biomarkers of nephrotoxicity associated with the use of anti‑VEGF drugs". Biomedical Reports 16.6 (2022): 46.
Chicago
Chebotareva, N., Grechukhina, K., Mcdonnell, V., Zhukova, L., Krasnova, T."Early biomarkers of nephrotoxicity associated with the use of anti‑VEGF drugs". Biomedical Reports 16, no. 6 (2022): 46. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2022.1529