Open Access

Nypa fruticans Wurmb inhibits melanogenesis in isobutylmethylxanthine‑treated melanoma via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/CREB and MAPK signaling pathways

  • Authors:
    • So-Yeon Han
    • Tae-Won Jang
    • Hye-Jeong Park
    • Sung-Soo Oh
    • Jung-Bok Lee
    • Sung-Min Myoung
    • Jae-Ho Park
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 8, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11691
  • Article Number: 754
  • Copyright: © Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Malignant melanoma is responsible for 3.0 and 1.7% of cases of tumor incidence and tumor‑associated mortality, respectively, in the Caucasian population. Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that occurs when melanocytes mutate and divide uncontrollably. Nypa fruticans Wurmb (NF) is abundant in phytochemicals (polyphenols and flavonoids) and is traditionally used to treat diseases of the respiratory tract. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of NF (ENF) on melanogenesis‑related factors in isobutylmethylxanthine‑treated B16F10 melanoma cells. Phenolics and flavonoids (caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin and hirsutine) in ENF were analyzed via liquid chromatography‑mass spectrometry. In addition, the main factors involved in melanogenesis were identified using immunoblotting, reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR), RT‑quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. ENF significantly suppressed the expression of tyrosinase (TYR) and TYR‑related proteins 1 and 2 (TYRP‑1/2), which are the main factors involved in melanogenesis. ENF also inhibited the expression of microphthalmia‑associated transcription factor (MITF) by phosphorylating the related cell signaling proteins (protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3‑kinase and cAMP response element‑binding protein). Furthermore, ENF inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase and thereby downregulated melanogenesis. In conclusion, ENF inhibited melanogenesis by suppressing MITF, which controls TYRP‑1/2 and TYR. These results suggested that ENF may be a natural resource that can inhibit excessive melanin expression by regulating various melanogenesis pathways.

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December-2022
Volume 24 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

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Spandidos Publications style
Han S, Jang T, Park H, Oh S, Lee J, Myoung S and Park J: <em>Nypa fruticans</em> Wurmb inhibits melanogenesis in isobutylmethylxanthine‑treated melanoma via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/CREB and MAPK signaling pathways. Exp Ther Med 24: 754, 2022
APA
Han, S., Jang, T., Park, H., Oh, S., Lee, J., Myoung, S., & Park, J. (2022). <em>Nypa fruticans</em> Wurmb inhibits melanogenesis in isobutylmethylxanthine‑treated melanoma via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/CREB and MAPK signaling pathways. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 24, 754. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11691
MLA
Han, S., Jang, T., Park, H., Oh, S., Lee, J., Myoung, S., Park, J."<em>Nypa fruticans</em> Wurmb inhibits melanogenesis in isobutylmethylxanthine‑treated melanoma via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/CREB and MAPK signaling pathways". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 24.6 (2022): 754.
Chicago
Han, S., Jang, T., Park, H., Oh, S., Lee, J., Myoung, S., Park, J."<em>Nypa fruticans</em> Wurmb inhibits melanogenesis in isobutylmethylxanthine‑treated melanoma via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/CREB and MAPK signaling pathways". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 24, no. 6 (2022): 754. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11691