Growth differentiation factor-9 expression is inversely correlated with an aggressive behaviour in human bladder cancer cells

  • Authors:
    • Peng Du
    • Lin Ye
    • Han Li
    • Fiona Ruge
    • Yong Yang
    • Wen G. Jiang
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: December 12, 2011     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2011.858
  • Pages: 428-434
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Abstract

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is a family member of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the TGF-β superfamily. There has been a recent surge of interest in the role of growth differentiation factors and other BMPs in the development and spread of cancer. However, the role of GDF-9 in bladder cancer remains unknown. The present study investigated the expression of GDF-9 in normal and malignant human bladder tissue and its molecular interactions within bladder cancer cells. The expression of GDF-9 in human bladder tissues and bladder cancer cell lines was assessed at both the mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Full-length GDF-9 cDNA was amplified from normal mammary tissues. GDF-9 was overexpressed in bladder cancer cell lines using a mammalian expression construct. The effect of GDF-9 on cellular functions, was examined in bladder cancer cells overexpressing GDF-9 using a variety of in vitro assays. In normal bladder tissues, stronger staining of GDF-9 was seen in transitional cells, both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. In contrast, the staining of GDF-9 was notably weak or absent in cancer cells of tumour tissues. Similarly, the bladder cancer cell lines RT112 and EJ138, expressed very low levels of GDF-9. Moreover, overexpression of GDF-9 reduced the growth, adhesion and migration of bladder cell lines in vitro. However, the overexpression of GDF-9 had little bearing on the invasion of bladder cell lines in vitro. In conclusion, GDF-9 is expressed at lower levels in human bladder cancer cells compared with normal transitional cells of the bladder. GDF-9 levels are inversely correlated with the growth, adhesion and migration of bladder cancer cells in vitro. The results of the present study suggest that GDF-9 is a potential tumour suppressor in human bladder cancer.

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March 2012
Volume 29 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Du, P., Ye, L., Li, H., Ruge, F., Yang, Y., & Jiang, W.G. (2012). Growth differentiation factor-9 expression is inversely correlated with an aggressive behaviour in human bladder cancer cells. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 29, 428-434. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2011.858
MLA
Du, P., Ye, L., Li, H., Ruge, F., Yang, Y., Jiang, W. G."Growth differentiation factor-9 expression is inversely correlated with an aggressive behaviour in human bladder cancer cells". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 29.3 (2012): 428-434.
Chicago
Du, P., Ye, L., Li, H., Ruge, F., Yang, Y., Jiang, W. G."Growth differentiation factor-9 expression is inversely correlated with an aggressive behaviour in human bladder cancer cells". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 29, no. 3 (2012): 428-434. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2011.858