Structure and function of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (Review).
Affiliations: Endocrine-Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
- Published online on: August 1, 1999 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.4.2.115
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The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) originally cloned from bovine parathyroid gland is a G protein-coupled receptor. The physiological relevance of the cloned CaR for sensing and regulating the extracellular calcium concentration has been established by identifying hyper- and hypocalcemic disorders resulting from inactivating and activating mutations, respectively, in the CaR. The cloned CaR has been stably or transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and significant progress has been made in elucidating its biochemical and functional features using physiological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. A large collection of naturally occurring CaR mutations offers a valuable resource for studies aimed at understanding the structure-function relationships of the receptor, including receptor-receptor interactions. In turn, characterization of these naturally occurring mutations has clarified the pathogenesis of clinical conditions involving abnormalities in the CaR, such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism, and the physiology of certain cell types, such as keratinocytes.