Superoxide dismutase and pulmonary oxygen toxicity: lessons from transgenic and knockout mice (Review).
Published online on: January 1, 2001
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Superoxide (O2-) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary O2 toxicity. The studies using transgenic and knockout mice of each of the three isoforms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) e.g. , CuZnSOD, MnSOD and extracellular SOD (EC-SOD), have demonstrated that O2- produced in the mitochondria from its electron transport system and extracellular O2- generated by infiltrating neutrophils, and possibly its derivatives e.g., hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, are important mediators of hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury, while cytoplasmic O2- plays a limited, if any, role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary O2 toxicity. Distal airway epithelial cells including type II alveolar and non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells, are important targets for O2 radicals under the hyperoxic condition. The accessibility of these distal airway epithelial cells to in vivo gene transfer through the tracheal route of administration, suggests the potential for in vivo transfer of MnSOD and EC-SOD genes as a future approach in the prevention of pulmonary O2 toxicity.