Effect of a novel vitamin D3 analog, EB1089, on G1 cell cycle regulatory proteins in HL-60 cells.
- J G Seol
- W H Park
- E S Kim
- C W Jung
- L Binderup
- H P Koeffler
- B K Kim
- Y Y Lee
Affiliations: Cancer Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
- Published online on: February 1, 2000 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.16.2.315
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Progression of cell cycle in eukaryotes is regulated by a series of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). It has been shown that 1,25(OH)2D3 is able to arrest cell cycle at G1 phase in malignant cells including HL-60 cells. EB1089 is a novel 1,25(OH)2D3 analog that has more potent antileukemic properties with reduced hypercalcemic effect in vitro and in vivo than 1,25(OH)2D3. In the present study, we examined the effect of EB1089 on HL-60 cells at the protein levels of several G1 regulatory proteins. Exposure of HL-60 cells to EB1089 (1x10-8 M) for 3 days showed the G1 block by FACS analysis. The level of p21 was markedly induced in HL-60 cells treated with EB1089 at 24 h, and p27 were progressively increased in a time-dependent manner. The expressions of CDK2 and CDK6 were down-regulated during G1 block of HL-60 cells, and CDK4 is progressively elevated. In addition, level of cyclin D1 was increased in a time-dependent manner, however, no change of cyclin E was noted through the G1 to S traverse. Immunoprecipitation study demonstrated that p27 did not bind to CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 in EB1089-treated HL-60 cell extracts. In contrast, complexes immunoprecipitated from EB1089-treated HL-60 cells with antibodies CDK2 and CDK6 contained higher amounts of immunodetectable p21 protein compared to untreated HL-60 cells, whereas no detectable change was noted with anti-CDK4 antibody. Furthermore, the kinase activities of CDK2 and CDK6 were decreased while little change was observed in CDK4 activity. These data indicated that p21 protein is a strong candidate for the control of G1 progression in EB1089-treated HL-60 cells, and its major target molecules are CDK2 and CDK6.