Inhibition of prostate specific antigen expression by genistein in prostate cancer cells.
- J N Davis
- N Muqim
- M Bhuiyan
- O Kucuk
- K J Pienta
- F H Sarkar
Affiliations: Department of Cancer Biology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
- Published online on: June 1, 2000 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.16.6.1091
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Recent studies have provided convincing evidence for the role of soy-isoflavones, particularly genistein, in the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a biological marker used to detect and monitor the treatment of prostate cancer patients. Previous studies have documented that isoflavones can inhibit the secretion of PSA in the androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, however, the effects of genistein on androgen-independent PSA expression has not been explored. In this study, we have utilized a prostate cancer cell line, VeCaP, which expresses PSA in an androgen-independent manner, to determine the effects of genistein on cell proliferation and PSA expression. Here we show that genistein inhibits cell growth similarly in both the LNCaP and VeCaP cell lines, but has differential effects on PSA expression. We demonstrate using concentrations of genistein that have been detected in the serum of humans consuming a soy-rich diet, that genistein decreases PSA mRNA, protein expression and secretion. Conversely, only high concentrations of genistein inhibited PSA expression in VeCaP cells. Additionally, we have demonstrated that genistein inhibits cell proliferation independent of PSA signaling pathways, providing further evidence to support the role of genistein as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent for prostate cancer irrespective of androgen responsiveness.