Repulsive guidance molecules, novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors, are key regulators of the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells
- Jin Li
- Lin Ye
- Howard G. Kynaston
- Wen G. Jiang
Published online on: Friday, November 4, 2011
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMA, RGMB and RGMC are GPI-linked membrane proteins recently identified as co-receptor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs are a group of proteins enriched in bone and play important roles in prostate cancer. The current study aimed to investigate roles played by RGMs in prostate cancer. Expression of RGMs was examined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostate cancer tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Knockdown of each RGM in prostate cancer cells was performed using the respective anti-RGMA, RGMB and RGMC transgenes. A variety of in vitro function tests were employed to analyze the influence on cancer cell functions by RGM knockdown. The implications of RGM knockdown in BMP signalling were also examined using both Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. Knockdown of RGMA had no effect on cell growth, migration and invasion, but promoted cell-matrix adhesion. Knockdown of RGMB and RGMC increased growth and adhesion, but only RGMB knockdown increased capacities of migration and invasion in PC-3 cells. Further investigations showed an increase in Smad-3 activation and reduced levels of Smad-1 in PC-3 cells by RGMB and RGMC knockdown, and also an up-regulation of ID1, a BMP target gene particularly in exposure to BMP7. RGMs play inhibitory roles in prostate cancer by suppressing cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. RGMs can coordinate Smad-dependent signalling of BMPs in prostate cancer cells.