Open Access

Mutational spectrum and classification of novel mutations in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours

  • Authors:
    • Alenka Bombac
    • Branko Zakotnik
    • Marina Bucic
    • Vita Setrajcic Dragos
    • Barbara Gazic
    • Vida Stegel
    • Gasper Klancar
    • Srdjan Novakovic
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: March 26, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.5028
  • Copyright: © Bombac et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

In total, ~85% of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) harbour activating mutations in one of the genes KIT or PDGFRA, while 10‑15% of all GISTs have no detectable KIT or PDGFRA mutations, but could have alterations in genes of the succinate dehydrogenase complex or in BRAF, PIK3CA or rarely RAS family genes. The clinical benefit of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, depends on the GIST genotype, therefore molecular characterization of GIST has a crucial role in overall management of GIST. The aim of the present study was to molecularly characterize a cohort of 70 patients with metastatic GISTs from the Slovenian Cancer Registry (National Cancer Registry) treated between January 2002 and December 2011. Exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 of the KIT gene and exons 12, 14 and 18 of the PDGFRA gene were analysed by direct Sanger sequencing. All KIT/PDGFRA wild‑type GISTs were tested for the presence of mutations in hot spot regions of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and AKT1 genes. Novel variants were characterized and classified using Cancer Genome Interpreter and according to The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. In total, 60 (85.7%) patients had mutations in KIT and 2 (2.9%) in PDGFRA. Whereas, 8 (11.4%) patients with GIST had no mutation in either of the analysed genes. The majority of GIST cases (n=52) had a mutation in KIT exon 11, where 40 different mutations were detected. Eight of the variants were novel: c.1652_1672del, c.1653_1660delinsAA, c.1665_1672delinsCC, c.1668_1686del, c.1676_1720del, c.1715_1756dup, c.1721_1765dup, and c.1722_1766dup. Mutation frequencies of KIT and PDGFRA genes observed in Slovenian patients are comparable with those in other European populations. In the present group of patients analysed, the most frequently mutated region was exon 11 in the KIT gene, responsible for coding juxtamembrane domain of KIT protein. In this region, eight novel mutations were identified and classified as likely pathogenic driver variants. In addition, the present study identified 6 patients with secondary KIT mutation and 1 patient with double mutant GIST, who had two different mutations in PDGFRA exon 14.

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APA
Bombac, A., Zakotnik, B., Bucic, M., Setrajcic Dragos, V., Gazic, B., Stegel, V. ... Novakovic, S. (1899). Mutational spectrum and classification of novel mutations in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours. International Journal of Oncology, 0, 0-0. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.5028
MLA
Bombac, A., Zakotnik, B., Bucic, M., Setrajcic Dragos, V., Gazic, B., Stegel, V., Klancar, G., Novakovic, S."Mutational spectrum and classification of novel mutations in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours". International Journal of Oncology 0.0 (1899): 0-0.
Chicago
Bombac, A., Zakotnik, B., Bucic, M., Setrajcic Dragos, V., Gazic, B., Stegel, V., Klancar, G., Novakovic, S."Mutational spectrum and classification of novel mutations in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours". International Journal of Oncology 0, no. 0 (1899): 0-0. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.5028