Open Access

Non‑Hodgkin's lymphomas of the lacrimal sac: Current insights and future directions (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Michail Athanasopoulos
    • Georgios Nomikos
    • Pinelopi Samara
    • Stylianos Mastronikolis
    • Christos Tsilivigkos
    • Nicholas S. Mastronikolis
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: June 10, 2024     https://doi.org/10.3892/mi.2024.167
  • Article Number: 43
  • Copyright : © Athanasopoulos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY 4.0].

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Abstract

Non‑Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the lacrimal sac is a rare, yet clinically significant entity within the spectrum of ocular malignancies. While primary lacrimal sac lymphoma is uncommon, it poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to its anatomical location and potential for aggressive behavior. Despite advancements being made in the current understanding and treatment of NHL, research that specifically addresses the involvement of the lacrimal sac is currently lacking. Thus, the present review aimed to provide insight into the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, histopathological features, treatment strategies and prognosis of lacrimal sac NHL. Through a methodical analysis of previous literature, the present review highlights the diverse spectrum of NHL subtypes that affect the lacrimal sac, including diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Moreover, the present review discusses the role of advanced imaging techniques in accurate staging and treatment planning, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography‑CT. The present review also discusses evolving treatment approaches, such as surgical intervention, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, combinations of the aforementioned treatments and targeted therapy. In addition, the present review highlights the significance of multidisciplinary collaboration in attaining optimal outcomes for individuals with lacrimal sac NHL. The present review aimed to provide a basis for 'further investigations into novel treatment modalities and prognostic markers that may aid in guiding personalized management strategies, ultimately improving outcomes for patients with NHL.

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July-August 2024
Volume 4 Issue 4

Print ISSN: 2754-3242
Online ISSN:2754-1304

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Spandidos Publications style
Athanasopoulos M, Nomikos G, Samara P, Mastronikolis S, Tsilivigkos C and Mastronikolis NS: Non‑Hodgkin's lymphomas of the lacrimal sac: Current insights and future directions (Review). Med Int 4: 43, 2024
APA
Athanasopoulos, M., Nomikos, G., Samara, P., Mastronikolis, S., Tsilivigkos, C., & Mastronikolis, N.S. (2024). Non‑Hodgkin's lymphomas of the lacrimal sac: Current insights and future directions (Review). Medicine International, 4, 43. https://doi.org/10.3892/mi.2024.167
MLA
Athanasopoulos, M., Nomikos, G., Samara, P., Mastronikolis, S., Tsilivigkos, C., Mastronikolis, N. S."Non‑Hodgkin's lymphomas of the lacrimal sac: Current insights and future directions (Review)". Medicine International 4.4 (2024): 43.
Chicago
Athanasopoulos, M., Nomikos, G., Samara, P., Mastronikolis, S., Tsilivigkos, C., Mastronikolis, N. S."Non‑Hodgkin's lymphomas of the lacrimal sac: Current insights and future directions (Review)". Medicine International 4, no. 4 (2024): 43. https://doi.org/10.3892/mi.2024.167