Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) mediates tumor cell interactions with microenvironment
Affiliations: Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, 16637 Prague, Czech Republic
- Published online on: May 1, 2005 https://doi.org/10.3892/or.13.5.977
- Pages: 977-982
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Expression of CA IX is normally restricted to the mucosa of alimentary tract, but on the other hand, it takes place in a high percentage of human cancers derived from tissues which are normally CA IX-negative. It is a transmembrane protein with two extracellular domains: carbonic anhydrase (CA) with a high catalytic activity and a proteoglycan-like segment (PG), mediating cell-cell adhesion. Both CA and PG domains interact with the microenvironment and they could play a role in tumorigenesis, but their roles are poorly understood. The present work characterizes some newly recognized properties of the PG. One of them is a prevalently negative charge, caused by a high proportion of dicarboxylic amino acids. This is reflected by easy dissociation of complexes formed by PG either with monoclonal antibody M75 or with the cell surface receptor already at slightly acidic pH. This property might facilitate separation of cells from the primary tumor. Released cells may subsequently attach elsewhere in the organism and eventually start metastatic growth. Another aim of the present study was to identify human tumor cell lines which are expressing the presumed CA IX receptor molecule. The same cell lines were also tested for the presence of CA IX protein; we found that expression of CA IX and of the receptor is independent of each other. In addition, we examined the species specificity of CA IX receptors. The PG domain, which contains the epitope of mAb M75 -PGEEDLP- overlapping with the binding site for putative receptor is relatively conserved in evolution: human and rat CA IX cross-react with M75 antibody on western blots. Consistently with this, human and rat cells can attach to purified human CA IX protein. On the other hand, murine CA IX contains an entirely different equivalent of PG sequence and it does not react with M75 antibody or attach to human CA IX protein. This is suggestive of the co-evolution of CA IX protein together with its receptor.