Vaccarin alleviates hypertension and nephropathy in renovascular hypertensive rats
- Weiwei Cai
- Zhenpeng Zhang
- Yiqi Huang
- Haijian Sun
- Liying Qiu
Published online on: November 6, 2017
Copyright: © Cai et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
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The kidney is an important organ in the regulation of blood pressure, and it is also one of the primary target organs of hypertension. Kidney damage in response to hypertension eventually leads to renal insufficiency. The authors previously demonstrated that vaccarin exhibits a protective role in endothelial injury. However, the effects of vaccarin on the two‑kidney, one clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model and subsequent kidney injury have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the roles and mechanisms of vaccarin in attenuating hypertension and whether vaccarin had beneficial effects on kidney injury. The 2K1C rats had greater fibrosis, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors in the right kidney compared with normotensive rats, which were alleviated by a high dose of vaccarin and captopril. Vaccarin treatment attenuated hypertension, reduced fibrosis markers, NADPH oxidase (NOX)‑2, NOX‑4, 3‑nitrotyrosine, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin 1β (IL‑1β), and IL‑6 protein levels and altered pro‑apoptotic protein levels including caspase‑3, anti‑apoptosis protein B cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 and Bcl‑2 associated X, apoptosis regulator in the right kidney of 2K1C rats. These findings suggest that the protective effects of vaccarin on the right kidney in renovascular hypertension are possibly due to downregulation of fibrosis, inflammatory molecules, oxidative stress, Ang II, and AT1 receptor levels.