STAT3-induced WNT5A signaling loop in embryonic stem cells, adult normal tissues, chronic persistent inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer (Review)
- Masuko Katoh
- Masaru Katoh
Published online on: Thursday, February 1, 2007
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M, leptin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin 1, cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1, interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 11 and interleukin 27 activate the gp130-JAK-STAT3 signaling cascade. Here, WNT5A was characterized as the evolutionarily conserved target of the STAT3 signaling cascade based on 11-bp-spaced tandem STAT3-binding sites within intron 4 of human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse and rat WNT5A orthologs. Canonical WNT5A signaling through Frizzled and LRP5/LRP6 receptors activates FGF20, WISP1, MYC and CCND1 transcription for the maintenance of stem/progenitor cells, while non-canonical WNT5A signaling through Frizzled and ROR2/PTK7/RYK receptors activates the RHOA, JNK, NLK and NFAT signaling cascades for the control of tissue polarity, cell adhesion or movement. LIF-induced Wnt5a activates canonical Wnt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells for self-renewal. STAT3-induced Wnt5a activates non-canonical Wnt signaling in rat cardiac myocytes for N-cadherin-dependent aggregation. IL6, secreted from epithelial cells or macrophages, induces WNT5A upregulation in mesenchymal cells. WNT5A then activates canonical WNT signaling in epithelial cells. IL6-induced WNT5A activates canonical WNT signaling for autocrine proliferation of human synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. IL-6 signaling is activated during human chronic atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection, and aberrant Stat3 signaling activation gives rise to mouse gastric tumors. WNT5A is frequently upregulated in human primary gastric cancer due to tumor-stromal interaction. WNT5A might be downregulated in advanced cancer with poorer prognosis due to genetic alterations compensating WNT5A signaling. Oncogenic WNT5A activates canonical WNT signaling in cancer stem cells for self-renewal, and non-canonical WNT signaling at the tumor-stromal interface for invasion and metastasis. SNP of genes encoding components of the cytokine-induced WNT5A signaling loop is a predicted risk factor for RA and cancer, especially diffuse-type gastric and pancreatic cancer. Humanized anti-IL6 receptor antibody and WNT5A mimetic small-molecule antagonist could be applied to personalized medicine for RA and cancer driven by the IL6-induced WNT5A signaling loop.