Simvastatin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in hepatic cancer cells

  • Authors:
    • Borna Relja
    • Frank Meder
    • Kerstin Wilhelm
    • Dirk Henrich
    • Ingo Marzi
    • Mark Lehnert
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 1, 2010     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000520
  • Pages: 735-741
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Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of major health concerns worldwide and one of leading causes of cancer death after lung and gastric cancers. Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. Simvastatin exhibits numerous pleiotropic effects including anti-cancer activity. Yet, the anticancer effects in HCC remain poorly characterized. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on tumor cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle. HepG2 and Huh7 cell lines were treated with simvastatin (32 and 64 µM) for different time periods. Tumor cell growth was assessed using MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis were also evaluated. Analysis of cell cycle proteins involved in simvastatin-induced manipulation was performed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Simvastatin induced a reduction of tumor cell growth. In both cell lines, simvastatin induced apoptosis and impaired cell cycle progression as depicted by the greater rates of G0/G1-phase cells than the rates of S-phase cells. Protein expression levels of cell cycle regulating proteins CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, p19 and p27 were markedly altered by simvastatin. Moreover, CDC2, CCND1 and CDCN2D mRNA expressions were also altered by drug treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that simvastatin induces apoptosis in tumor cells and its anti-proliferative activity was accompanied by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins, whereas CDK inhibitors p19 and p27 were enhanced. These results may provide novel insights into simvastatin tumor-suppressive action.

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November 2010
Volume 26 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Relja, B., Meder, F., Wilhelm, K., Henrich, D., Marzi, I., & Lehnert, M. (2010). Simvastatin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in hepatic cancer cells . International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 26, 735-741. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000520
MLA
Relja, B., Meder, F., Wilhelm, K., Henrich, D., Marzi, I., Lehnert, M." Simvastatin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in hepatic cancer cells ". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 26.5 (2010): 735-741.
Chicago
Relja, B., Meder, F., Wilhelm, K., Henrich, D., Marzi, I., Lehnert, M." Simvastatin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in hepatic cancer cells ". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 26, no. 5 (2010): 735-741. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000520