Deletion in p16INK4a and loss of p16 expression in human skin primary and metastatic melanoma cells
Division of Dermatology, Clinical Research Center, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
- Published online on: February 1, 2004 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.2.331
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p16INK4a gene mapped at chromosome 9p21 region encodes a tumor suppressor protein p16 which is frequently inactivated in human cancers, including skin melanoma. In order to clarify the importance of p16 alterations in melanoma, we examined the deletions of p16INK4a and expression of p16 protein in eight unselected primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines from human skin melanomas. Normal skin melanocytes were used as controls. Deletions of entire exons in the p16INK4a gene were detected by PCR technique and expression of the p16 protein was examined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Results showed that the fragments from exons 2A, 2C and 3 in p16INK4a gene were totally deleted in the metastatic melanoma cell line, FM28.7 and the fragment from exon 3 was deleted in the metastatic melanoma cell line, FM55M2. P16 protein was strongly expressed in two of the primary melanomas cell lines (FM55P and RaH3). The p16 protein was weakly expressed in one of the metastatic melanoma cell lines (FM55M1) and negative in the other metastasis (FM55M2) as compared to their matched primary melanoma cells (FM55P). The p16 protein was strongly expressed in normal skin melanocytes. Immunocytochemistry showed that p16 protein was mainly localized in the nuclei of the melanoma cells and normal melanocytes, if it was expressed. Deletions of p16INK4a gene was uncommon and loss of p16 protein expression was common event in melanoma, especially in the later stages of melanoma.