Integrative genomic analyses on GLI1: Positive regulation of GLI1 by Hedgehog-GLI, TGFβ-Smads, and RTK-PI3K-AKT signals, and negative regulation of GLI1 by Notch-CSL-HES/HEY, and GPCR-Gs-PKA signals
- Yuriko Katoh
- Masaru Katoh
Published online on: Wednesday, July 1, 2009
GLI family members are zinc-finger transcription factors, which are involved in embryogenesis and carcinogenesis through transcription regulation of GLI1, CCND1, CCND2, FOXA2, FOXC2, RUNX2, SFRP1, and JAG2. GLI1 transcription is upregulated in a variety of human tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, and esophageal cancer. Hedgehog signaling via Smoothened cascade and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling via PI3K-AKT cascade induce stabilization of GLI1 protein, whereas G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via Gs-PKA cascade induces degradation of GLI1 protein. Here we report integrative genomic analyses of the GLI1 gene. The GLI1 and ARHGAP9 genes are located in a tail-to-tail manner with overlapping 3'-ends. ARHGAP9 was expressed in bone marrow, spleen, thymus, monocytes, and macrophages, whereas GLI1 was almost undetectable in normal tissues or cells with predominant ARHGAP9 expression. Because overlapping sense and anti-sense transcripts are annealed to each other to give rise to double-stranded RNAs functioning as endogenous RNAi, GLI1 expression might be negatively regulated by ARHGAP9 transcripts. GLI-binding element with one base substitution at the +1589-bp position from the transcriptional start site (TSS) of the human GLI1 gene was completely conserved in chimpanzee GLI1, mouse Gli1, and rat Gli1 genes. Ten Smad-binding elements, double E-boxes for EMT regulators, and double N-boxes for HES/HEY family members within intron 1 of the human GLI1 gene were also conserved in mammalian GLI1 orthologs. GLI1 transcription is upregulated due to Hedgehog, and TGFβ signaling activation, whereas GLI1 transcription is downregulated due to Snail/Slug, and Notch signaling activation. Together these facts indicate that Hedgehog, TGFβ, and RTK signals positively regulate GLI1, and that Notch, and GsPCR signals negatively regulate the GLI1.