Mechanisms of the formation of the peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer
- Y Yonemura
- Y Endo
- T Yamaguchi
- T Fujimura
- T Obata
- T Kawamura
- N Nojima
- I Miyazaki
- T Sasaki
Affiliations: KANAZAWA UNIV,SCH MED,INST CANC,DEPT EXPTL THERAPEUT,KANAZAWA,ISHIKAWA 920,JAPAN. KANAZAWA UNIV,SCH MED,DEPT ELECTRON MICROSCOPY,KANAZAWA,ISHIKAWA 920,JAPAN.
- Published online on: April 1, 1996 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.8.4.795
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To clarify the mechanisms of the formation of peritoneal dissemination, a new animal model by the i.p. inoculation of highly metastatic gastric cancer cell line MKN-45-P was developed. Peritoneal dissemination with bloody ascites was found in 100% of nude mice, injected 1x10(7) MKN-45-P cells in suspension into the peritoneal cavity. By a highly sensitive method for specific detection of metastasized human tumor cells in nude mice using polymerase chain reaction, a human beta-globin-related sequence in the DNA from various parts of the peritoneum was specifically amplified and detected by gel electrophoresis and by a specific oligonucleotide probe. Greater omentum showed a strong signal of the amplified fragments of human beta-globin gene from the 1st day and the signals gradually increased. The signals in the gonadal fat, mesentery and ovarium could be weakly detected on the Ist day, transiently decreased on the 3rd day, and then increased from the 7th day. In the diaphragm, and abdominal wall, signals could be detected from the 7th day. In contrast, small intestine and colon did not show any human beta-globin signals. In greater omentum and gonadal fat, cancer cells were selectively detected in the milky spots stained by activated carbon on the 3rd day. In the diaphragm, cancer cells adhered to the small pores termed stomata, and invaded into the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic lacunae connected with stomata. From the 3rd day, mesothelial cells of the abdominal cavity became round and separated, resulting in the exposure of the underlying connective tissue. MKN-45-P cells were found to adhere to the naked areas of the submesothelial connective tissue. From these results, we conclude that the major metastatic route of the peritoneum may be firstly through milky spots, secondly through the diaphragmatic stomata, and thirdly by the adhesion to the naked connective tissue exposed after shrinkage of the mesothelial cells. The third process may be related to the interaction between some adhesion molecules and their ligands.