Anti‑tumor effects of bakuchiol on human gastric carcinoma cell lines are mediated through PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways
Published online on: October 3, 2017
Bakuchiol is extracted from Psoralea corylifolia, a member of the Leguminosae family, has been used in Indian Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine, and it possesses an anticancer effect. The primary aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of bakuchiol monoterpenes. Bakuchiol treatment significantly inhibited NUGC3 human gastric cancer cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, bakuchiol significantly increased the apoptotic cell population in the sub‑G1 phase, and Annexin‑V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining confirmed the increase in apoptosis. Nuclear fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic organelles were promoted in bakuchiol‑treated NUGC3 cells. Western blotting results indicated that bakuchiol treatment significantly decreased procaspase‑3,6,8,9 and poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression levels, increased cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved PARP expression levels, and increased the B cell lymphoma‑2 associated X, apoptosis regulator:B cell lymphoma‑extra large ratio. Bakuchiol‑treated NUGC3 cells demonstrated significantly reduced phosphorylated (p‑) protein kinase B (AKT) protein expression levels and elevated p‑extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and p‑p38. Bakuchiol‑induced cell death was mitochondrial dependent, through modulation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/AKT and mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathways. These findings demonstrated that bakuchiol possesses potential for treating human gastric cancer.