T‑cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain‑containing protein‑3 and galectin‑9 protein expression: Potential prognostic significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for Chinese patients
- Nan Hou
- Jie Ma
- Wei Li
- Lingdi Zhao
- Quanli Gao
- Ling Mai
Published online on: October 16, 2017
Copyright: © Hou et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of the T‑cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain‑containing protein‑3 (TIM‑3) and galectin‑9 proteins and their clinical value in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Chinese patients. The expression profiles of TIM‑3 and galectin‑9 in ESCC were determined by the immunohistochemical analysis of the postoperative pathological specimens of 45 patients with ESCC; a χ2 test was used to evaluate the association of TIM‑3 and galectin‑9 expression with clinicopathological parameters, in addition to univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model to analyze the prognostic value of the expression of TIM‑3 and galectin‑9 proteins. The proportion of samples exhibiting a high staining intensity for TIM‑3 and galectin‑9 were 22.22 and 15.56%, respectively: these samples were termed the TIM‑3 high‑expression group (HEG) and galectin‑9‑HEG. There was a negative correlation between the expression of TIM‑3 and galectin‑9 (R=‑0.71, P<0.001). The results of Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis led to the conclusion that, compared with the TIM‑3 low expression group (LEG), patients in the TIM‑3‑HEG exhibited a poorer overall survival rate (χ2=6.049, P=0.0139). By contrast, patients in the galectin‑9‑HEG exhibited a significantly better overall survival rate than those in the galectin‑9‑LEG (χ2=4.915, P=0.0266). However, the levels of TIM‑3 and galectin‑9 expression were not identified as independent indicators for the prognosis of patients with ESCC. As high TIM‑3 and low galectin‑9 expression levels were associated with a poor prognosis for patients with ESCC in the present study, these proteins may be potential prognostic indicators for ESCC.