Chloroquine affects autophagy to achieve an anticancer effect in EC109 esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro

  • Authors:
    • Yan Cai
    • Jiajing Cai
    • Qiang Ma
    • Yuan Xu
    • Jiang Zou
    • Lei Xu
    • Dongsheng Wang
    • Xiaolan Guo
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 15, 2017     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7415
  • Pages:1143-1148
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Abstract

Esophageal carcinoma is a malignancy that severely threatens human health, with a high incidence rate and a low 5‑year survival rate. Resistance to chemotherapy frequently emerges during its treatment, partly due to the induction of autophagy. Therefore, targeting autophagy may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. In the present study, it was investigated how chloroquine (CQ) can influence the growth ability and biological behaviors of EC109 esophageal squamous carcinoma cells in vitro, as well as the potential molecular mechanisms behind its activity. It was demonstrated that CQ could suppress the growth and proliferation of EC109 cells in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner; migration and colony formation abilities were also inhibited by CQ. Furthermore, subsequent to the exposure to CQ, the number of autophagosomes was clearly increased in EC109 cells overexpressing green fluorescent protein tagged‑light chain (LC)3 when observed by fluorescence microscopy. Protein expression of the endogenous autophagy markers LC3‑II and p62 was elevated subsequent to CQ treatment, whereas the expression of proteins from the protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin target of rapamycin pathway was inhibited. This suggested that CQ could induce the formation of autophagosomes in the initiation of autophagy, but inhibit the degradation of autophagosomes in a later stage of autophagy. The overall effect was that autophagic cell death was activated by CQ, as confirmed by flow cytometry. Overall, the anticancer effect of chloroquine on EC109 was revealed to be mediated through modulating autophagy, and this may produce promising therapeutic benefits for esophageal carcinoma.

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January 2018
Volume 15 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

2016 Impact Factor: 1.39
Ranked #68/217 Oncology
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APA
Cai, Y., Cai, J., Ma, Q., Xu, Y., Zou, J., Xu, L. ... Guo, X. (2018). Chloroquine affects autophagy to achieve an anticancer effect in EC109 esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro. Oncology Letters, 15, 1143-1148. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7415
MLA
Cai, Y., Cai, J., Ma, Q., Xu, Y., Zou, J., Xu, L., Wang, D., Guo, X."Chloroquine affects autophagy to achieve an anticancer effect in EC109 esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro". Oncology Letters 15.1 (2018): 1143-1148.
Chicago
Cai, Y., Cai, J., Ma, Q., Xu, Y., Zou, J., Xu, L., Wang, D., Guo, X."Chloroquine affects autophagy to achieve an anticancer effect in EC109 esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro". Oncology Letters 15, no. 1 (2018): 1143-1148. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7415