CITED2 attenuates macrophage recruitment concordant with the downregulation of CCL20 in breast cancer cells
- Swaathi Jayaraman
- Michele Doucet
- Scott L. Kominsky
Published online on: November 15, 2017
Copyright: © Jayaraman et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
The transcriptional co‑regulator Cbp/p300‑interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp‑rich carboxy‑terminal domain‑2 (CITED2) may promote breast tumor growth; however, the mechanisms by which its effects are mediated remain to be fully elucidated. Tumor‑associated macrophages serve an important function in tumor development and progression and are recruited by chemotactic factors produced by cells within the tumor microenvironment. The present study assessed the effects of CITED2 silencing on macrophage recruitment in two xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer, one in which tumor growth was sensitive to CITED2 silencing (MDA‑MB‑231) and one in which it was insensitive (MDA‑MB‑468). The present study identified that silencing CITED2 significantly attenuated macrophage infiltration in MDA‑MB‑231 but not MDA‑MB‑468 orthotopic tumors, concordant with its effect on tumor growth. Correspondingly, conditioned media obtained from CITED2‑silenced MDA‑MB‑231 cells exhibited a significantly decreased ability to induce macrophage recruitment by Transwell migration assay, whereas the chemotactic effect of MDA‑MB‑468 conditioned media was unaffected. Examining the expression of macrophage chemoattractants within orthotopic tumors and tumor cell‑conditioned media revealed a significant decrease in C‑C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)20 mRNA and protein expression following CITED2‑silencing in MDA‑MB‑231 cells, compared with that in cells transfected with scramble shRNA. However, mRNA and protein expression was unaffected by CITED2‑silencing in MDA‑MB‑468 cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that CITED2 was localized to the CCL20 promoter in MDA‑MB‑231 cells, suggesting that it serves a direct function in its regulation, which is consistent with the effect of CITED2 silencing on CCL20 expression. Lastly, neutralizing CCL20 in the conditioned media of MDA‑MB‑231 cells significantly inhibited macrophage recruitment. Collectively, these results suggest that CITED2 is involved in modulating macrophage recruitment, representing a novel mechanism through which it may influence tumor growth. This may be partly mediated by regulating tumor cell production of the chemokine CCL20.