Open Access

FOXO1 regulates oncogenic PKC-ι expression in melanoma inversely to c-Jun in an autocrine manner via IL-17E and ICAM-1 activation

  • Authors:
    • Wishrawana S. Ratnayke
    • Christopher A. Apostolatos
    • Sloan Breedy
    • Andre H. Apostolatos
    • Mildred Acevedo-Duncan
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 25, 2018     https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2018.2
  • Pages: 25-38
  • Copyright: © Ratnayke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Regardless of abundant efforts to enhance primary prevention and early detection, the number of melanoma cases in the United States has increased steadily over the past 15 years, thus greatly affecting public health and the economy. In previous studies, we demonstrated protein kinase C‑ι (PKC‑ι) to be an oncogene in melanoma, which promotes the activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB, thereby supporting survival and progression. In addition, we demonstrated that PKC‑ι induced the metastasis of melanoma cells by activating Vimentin, and PKC‑ι inhibition downregulated epithilial‑mesencymal transi‑ tion (EMT), while inducing apoptosis. Of note, PKC‑ι specific inhibitors downregulated the expression of both PKC‑ι and phosphorylated PKC‑ι, suggesting that PKC‑ι plays a role in regulating its own expression in melanoma. In this study, we report the underlaying mechanisms of the transcriptional regulation of PKC‑ι (PRKCI gene) expression in melanoma. c‑Jun, interferon‑stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), paired box gene 3 (PAX3), early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) and Forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), which bind on or near the promoter sequence of the PRKCI gene, were analyzed for their role in PKC‑ι regulation in SK‑MEL‑2 and MeWo cell lines. We silenced selected transcription factors using siRNA, and the results revealed that the silencing of c‑Jun and FOXO1 significantly altered the expression of PRKCI. The levels of both phosphorylated and total PKC‑ι increased upon FOXO1 silencing and decreased upon c‑Jun silencing, suggesting that c‑Jun acts as an upregulator, while FOXO1 acts as a down‑ regulator of PRKCI expression. We also used a multiplex ELISA to analyze multiple pathways other than NF‑κB that were affected by treatment with PKC‑ι inhibitor. The silencing of NF‑κB p65 and PKC‑ι by siRNA suggested that the regula‑ tion of PKC‑ι expression was strongly associated with FOXO1. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of both interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑8, with a significant increase in the levels of IL‑17E and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM‑1) upon the knockdown of expression of PKC‑ι in both cell lines. This suggested that PKC‑ι expres‑ sion was affected by these cytokines in an autocrine manner. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that PKC‑ι inhibi‑ tion suppresses its own expression, diminishing oncogenic signaling, while upregulating anti‑tumor signaling, thus rendering it an effective novel biomarker for use in the design of novel targeted therapeutics for melanoma.

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January 2019
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APA
Ratnayke, W., Apostolatos, C., Breedy, S., Apostolatos, A., & Acevedo-Duncan, M. (2019). FOXO1 regulates oncogenic PKC-ι expression in melanoma inversely to c-Jun in an autocrine manner via IL-17E and ICAM-1 activation. World Academy of Sciences Journal, 1, 25-38. https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2018.2
MLA
Ratnayke, W., Apostolatos, C., Breedy, S., Apostolatos, A., Acevedo-Duncan, M."FOXO1 regulates oncogenic PKC-ι expression in melanoma inversely to c-Jun in an autocrine manner via IL-17E and ICAM-1 activation". World Academy of Sciences Journal 1.1 (2019): 25-38.
Chicago
Ratnayke, W., Apostolatos, C., Breedy, S., Apostolatos, A., Acevedo-Duncan, M."FOXO1 regulates oncogenic PKC-ι expression in melanoma inversely to c-Jun in an autocrine manner via IL-17E and ICAM-1 activation". World Academy of Sciences Journal 1, no. 1 (2019): 25-38. https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2018.2