An update on Fanconi anemia: Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular approaches (Review)
- Olga María Moreno
- Angela Camila Paredes
- Fernando Suarez‑Obando
- Adriana Rojas
Affiliations: Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá 110231, Colombia
- Published online on: July 15, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2021.1450
Copyright: © Moreno
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Fanconi anemia is a genetic syndrome clinically characterized by congenital malformations that affect several human systems, leads to progressive bone marrow failure and predisposes an individual to cancer, particularly in the urogenital area as well as the head and neck. It is commonly caused by the biallelic compromise of one of 22 genes involved in the FA/BRCA repair pathway in most cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and confirmation using genetic analysis, where the chromosomal breakage test is considered the gold standard. Other diagnostic methods used include western blotting, multiplex ligation‑dependent probe amplification and next‑generation sequencing. This genetic condition has variable expressiveness, which makes early diagnosis difficult in certain cases. Although early diagnosis does not currently allow for improved cure rates for this condition, it does enable healthcare professionals to perform a specific systematic follow‑up and, if indicated, a bone marrow transplantation that improves the mobility and mortality of affected individuals. The present review article is a theoretical revision of the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis methods intended for different specialists and general practitioners to improve the diagnosis of this condition.