Open Access

Endothelial dysfunction and COVID‑19 (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Jalil Daher
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 7, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2021.1478
  • Article Number: 102
  • Copyright: © Daher et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

It is hypothesized that several comorbidities increase the severity of COVID‑19 symptoms. Cardiovascular disease including hypertension was shown to play a critical role in the severity of COVID‑19 infection by affecting the survival of patients with COVID‑19. Hypertension and the renin‑angiotensin‑aldosterone system are involved in increasing vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (ED), and both processes are instrumental in COVID‑19. Angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 is an essential component of the renin‑angiotensin‑aldosterone system and the target receptor that mediates SARS‑CoV‑2 entry to the cell. This led to speculations that major renin‑angiotensin‑aldosterone system inhibitors, such as angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin‑converting enzyme inhibitors might affect the course of the disease, since their administration enhances angiotensin‑converting enzyme (ACE)2 expression. An increase in ACE2 activity could reduce angiotensin II concentration in the lungs and mitigate virus‑driven lung injury. This could also be associated with a reduction in blood coagulation, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SARS‑CoV‑2; of note, COVID‑19 is now regarded as a disorder of blood clotting. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the effect of targeting ACE2 as a potential treatment for SARS‑CoV‑2 driven injury, and in alleviating COVID‑19 symptoms by reversing SARS‑CoV‑2‑induced excessive coagulation and fatalities. Ongoing therapeutic strategies that include recombinant human ACE2 and anti‑spike monoclonal antibodies are essential for future clinical practice in order to better understand the effect of targeting ED in COVID‑19.

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December-2021
Volume 15 Issue 6

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Spandidos Publications style
Daher J: Endothelial dysfunction and COVID‑19 (Review). Biomed Rep 15: 102, 2021
APA
Daher, J. (2021). Endothelial dysfunction and COVID‑19 (Review). Biomedical Reports, 15, 102. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2021.1478
MLA
Daher, J."Endothelial dysfunction and COVID‑19 (Review)". Biomedical Reports 15.6 (2021): 102.
Chicago
Daher, J."Endothelial dysfunction and COVID‑19 (Review)". Biomedical Reports 15, no. 6 (2021): 102. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2021.1478