Serum amyloid A, ferritin and carcinoembryonic antigen as biomarkers of severity in patients with COVID‑19
- Dina A. Abdelhakam
- Fatma Mohammed Badr
- Mohammed Abd El Monem Teama
- Nouran M. Bahig Elmihi
- Marwa Adham El‑Mohamdy
Affiliations: Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt, Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
- Published online on: December 21, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2021.1496
Copyright: © Abdelhakam
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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In view of the rapid spread of COVID‑19 and the high mortality rate of severe cases, reliable risk stratifying indicators of prognosis are necessary to decrease morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of serum amyloid A (SAA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as prognostic biomarkers in comparison to other predictors, including C‑reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels. This study included 124 patients diagnosed with COVID‑19, and they were assigned to one of two groups: Mild and severe, based on the severity of the infection. Radiological and laboratory investigations were performed, including evaluation of CRP, ferritin, D‑Dimer, SAA and CEA levels. Significantly higher levels of CRP, ferritin, D‑Dimer, SAA and CEA were observed in severe cases. SAA was significantly correlated with CRP (r=0.422, P<0.001), ferritin (r=0.574, P<0.001), CEA (r=0.514, P<0.001) and computed tomography severity score (CT‑SS; r=0.691, P<0.001). CEA was correlated with CRP (r=0.441, P<0.001), ferritin (r=0.349, P<0.001) and CT‑SS (r=0.374, P<0.001). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for performance of SAA, CEA, ferritin, CRP and SAA showed the highest AUC value of 0.928, with a specificity of 93.1%, and a sensitivity of 98.5% at a cut‑off of 16 mg/l. The multi‑ROC curve for SAA and ferritin showed 100% specificity, 100% sensitivity and 100% efficiency, with an AUC of 1.000. Thus, combining SAA and ferritin may have guiding significance for predicting COVID‑19 severity. SAA alone showed the highest prognostic significance. Both SAA and CEA were positively correlated with the CT‑SS. Early monitoring of these laboratory markers may thus provide significant input for halting disease progression and reducing mortality rates.