Sex‑based differences in the predisposing factors of overdose: A retrospective study
- Sheng-Teck Tan
- Chih-Hung Lo
- Chen-Hao Liao
- Yu-Jang Su
Affiliations: Poison Center, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan, R.O.C., Emergency Department, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan, R.O.C.
- Published online on: April 20, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2022.1532
Copyright: © Tan
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Drug overdose is one of the common events encountered in the emergency department (ED). The aim of the present study was to investigate the sex difference and predisposing factors of overdose in the ED. Data of 299 patients with self‑poisoning reported at our poison center from January 2018 to August 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Study cases categorized using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision coding system, which include codes T36 to T50, were selected. Data were collected including Glasgow Coma Scale scores and vital signs upon arrival (including body temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, sex, age, marital status, arrival time, season on admission, previous suicide attempts, psychiatric history, related comorbidities, recent arguments, categories of overdose with or without concurrent ethanol use, length of hospital stay, and survival to discharge) were analyzed. The top three types of substances that were frequently involved in drug overdose were benzodiazepine (42.9%), mixed medications (32.1%), and acetaminophen (6.1%). The 196 enrolled patients were aged 14 to 92 years (mean ± standard deviation, 39.2±18.3), and of these patients, male intentional overdose patients were 8.1 years older than their female counterparts (45.3±19.5 vs. 37.2±17.5, respectively; P<0.05). Most intentional overdose cases occurred during the spring season (n=63, 32.1%), especially in male patients (n=28, 57.1%; P<0.001). Approximately 11.2% (22/196) and 2% (4/196) of the total patients were admitted to the Toxicology ward and intensive care units, respectively. The length of hospital stay was 2±4.1 days. In summary, it is suggested that physicians notify the suicide prevention centers to be on alert for middle‑aged men who are facing conflicts, especially during the spring season.