Lower respiratory tract infections due to multi‑drug resistant pathogens in central nervous system injuries (Review)
Affiliations: Department of Infectious Diseases and COVID‑19 Unit, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece, Department of Biochemistry, Sismanogleio Hospital, 15126 Athens, Greece, Department of Neurosurgery, Nicosia General Hospital, 2029 Nicosia, Cyprus, Department of Neurosurgery, General University Hospital of Larisa, 41221 Larisa, Greece
- Published online on: March 6, 2023 https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2023.1612
- Article Number: 30
Copyright: © Georgakopoulou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
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Pneumonia is one of the most prevalent infections in the intensive care unit (ICU), where pneumonia may occur during hospitalization in the ICU as a complication. ICU patients with central nervous system (CNS) injuries are not an exception, and they may even be more susceptible to infections such as pneumonia due to issues such as swallowing difficulties, the requirement for mechanical ventilation, and extended hospital stay. Numerous common CNS injuries, such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage, can prolong hospital stay and increase the risk of pneumonia. Multidrug‑resistant (MDR) microorganisms are a common and significant concern, with increased mortality in nosocomial pneumonia. However, research on pneumonia due to MDR pathogens in patients with CNS injuries is limited. The aim of the present review was to provide the current evidence regarding pneumonia due to MDR pathogens in patients with CNS injuries. The prevalence of pneumonia due to MDR pathogens in CNS injuries differs among different settings, types of CNS injuries, geographical areas, and time periods in which the studies were performed. Specific risk factors for the emergence of pneumonia due to MDR pathogens have been identified in ICUs and neurological rehabilitation units. Antimicrobial resistance is currently a global issue, although using preventive measures, early diagnosis, and close monitoring of MDR strains may lessen its impact. Since there is a lack of information on these topics, more multicenter prospective studies are required to offer insights into the clinical features and outcomes of these patients.