Clinical, microbiological, immunological and hormonal profiles of patients with granulomatous mastitis
Affiliations: Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Kalar Technical College, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan 46000, Iraq, Department of Scientific Affairs, Smart Health Tower, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan 46000, Iraq, Kscien Organization, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan 46000, Iraq
- Published online on: May 18, 2023 https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2023.1624
- Article Number: 41
Copyright: © Esmaeil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
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Various studies on the etiology and other aspects of granulomatous mastitis (GM) have been performed; however, a lot of controversies have arisen. The present study aimed to present the clinicopathological findings and identify the sensitivity and resistance of isolated bacteria in patients with GM. In this cross‑sectional study 63 female patients with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis of GM were included. A core needle biopsy was conducted for the patients to obtain a sample for histopathological examination and bacterial culture. In total, 46 types of antibiotics were used to determine the sensitivity and resistance of each isolated bacterial species. All the medical and clinical records of the patients were acquired through the completion of a questionnaire form in person or, if necessary, through the evaluation of their medical records in the database of the relevant center. The majority of the patients were in the premenopausal or perimenopausal period. GM was unilateral in 58.7% of the patients. The most common symptom was pain, followed by fever and chills. The mean ranges of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C‑reactive protein, IL‑6, IL‑17, C5a, white blood count, neutrophil‑to‑lymphocyte ratio, and prolactin tests were significantly elevated in comparison to the normal ranges. In total, nine different bacterial species were isolated from the bacterial culture of the core biopsy samples, and 50% of the isolated bacterial species were sensitive to trimethoprim‑sulfamethoxazole. Since there is no consensus on the etiology of GM, any additional studies related to this aspect expand the current understanding of this puzzling condition.