Ginseng berry aqueous extract prevents scopolamine‑induced memory impairment in mice
- Jin Ryul Hu
- Yoon Seok Chun
- Jong Kyu Kim
- Il Je Cho
- Sae Kwang Ku
Affiliations: Research Center for Herbal Convergence on Liver Disease, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk‑do 38610, Republic of Korea, Central Research Center, Aribio Co., Ltd., Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi‑do 17749, Republic of Korea
- Published online on: October 8, 2019 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.8090
Copyright: © Hu
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Ginseng berry exhibits a diverse range of pharmacological activities. The present study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of ginseng berry aqueous extract (GBE) against oxidative stress and to assess the impact of GBE on memory impairment in mice. In HT‑22 cells, GBE pretreatment significantly inhibited glutamate‑ and hydrogen peroxide‑mediated cytotoxicity in a concentration‑dependent manner, while treatment with up to 100 µg/ml GBE alone did not change cell viability. In a murine model of scopolamine (SCP)‑induced memory impairment, results from the passive avoidance test and the Morris water maze test indicated that GBE administration for 4 weeks prolonged step‑through latency time and shortened escape latency time, suggesting that GBE can attenuate deficits in long‑term memory induced by SCP. Additionally, GBE prevented SCP‑induced reductions in acetylcholine by decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity and upregulating choline acetyltransferase mRNA levels in the hippocampus. GBE mitigated SCP‑mediated mRNA decreases in brain‑derived neurotrophic factor levels and its associated signaling molecules. Furthermore, GBE administration significantly suppressed malondialdehyde production and increased glutathione levels, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity in SCP‑induced memory impaired mice. Therefore, the results of the current study indicated that ginseng berry may be a potential candidate for treating or preventing memory deficits that are associated with neurodegenerative disorders.