Helicobacter pylori infection over bile reflux: No influence on the severity of endoscopic or premalignant gastric lesion development
- Andreea Szőke
- Simona Mocan
- Anca Negovan
Affiliations: Department of Pathology, Mureș County Clinical Hospital, 540061 Târgu Mureș, Romania, Department of Pathology, Emergency County Hospital, 540136 Târgu Mureș, Romania, Department of Clinical Science‑Internal Medicine, ‘George Emil Palade’ University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology, 540139 Târgu Mureș, Romania
- Published online on: May 14, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10198
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Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection and duodenogastric reflux (DGR) are both linked to endoscopic and premalignant gastric lesion development, but it is still unclear whether they are independent or have a causal relationship. This study investigated the histologic gastric changes in patients with primary DGR and H. pylori infection, as well as their endoscopic findings, symptoms, drug consumption, and social behavior in comparison with patients presenting only DGR. The study included 560 patients with primary DGR on endoscopy divided into two groups, according to the presence/absence of H. pylori infection on biopsy (utilizing usual stainings and immunohistochemical methods). There was no significant difference in terms of age and sex, nor in the frequency of diabetes or esophagitis between the studied groups. Epigastric pain was associated with H. pylori‑positive biopsies in multivariate logistic regression analysis (P=0.005). Although without statistical significance, severe endoscopic lesions and premalignant gastric lesions were more frequent in the H. pylori group (45.1 vs. 28.4% and 37.4 vs. 32.3%, respectively). In patients with DGR, the final multivariate model revealed a positive association between smoking and immunohistochemically confirmed H. pylori infection (P=0.02, OR=1.88, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.10 to 3.21), but a negative effect of proton pump inhibitor consumption (P<0.001, OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.35 to 0.73). In conclusion, in patients with H. pylori infection and DGR, epigastric pain was the main reason for the endoscopic investigation. H. pylori infection over DGR did not influence the severity of endoscopic or premalignant gastric lesion development. Furthermore, smoking is directly related to immunohistochemically assessed active H. pylori infection in patients with bile reflux.